Tao Ren

Semen Persicae, Peach Kernel

Dosage

To decoct, use 6-10g and grounded to powder.

Toxicity

1. Depending on the mode of administration, amygdalin can be either harmless or poisonous – its toxicity level is at the highest when taken orally. (1)
2. LD50 (mice/abdominal injection/herb decoction): 222.5 ± 7.5g/kg. (2)

Chemical Composition

Triolein; Triglyceride; Glyceride; 1, 2-diacylglyceride; Steroid Esters; 1, 3---diacylglyceride; Monoacylglyceride; Alkane; Phosphorylcholine; Phosphorylthanomin; Linoeic acid; Palmitic acide; Oleic acid; Amygdaloside; Prunasine; Saccharu; Dextrose; Steroid glycoside; Acylate glycoside; Asparagic acid; Threonine; Serine; Glutamict acid; r-propalanine; Proline; Aminoacetic acid; Alanine; Valine; Methionine; Isoleucine; Tyrosine; Phenylalanine; Lysine; Histidine; Arginine; Emusin; Allantoinase; Lactase; Vitamin-B1; Vitamin-K; Nicotinic acid; Camp; Persicoside; Naringenin; 3, 4-caffeic acid; P-hydroxylauric acid; Lactosdiglycerolglycocide; Protein F, G, PR-A, PR-B; Phospholipid Gp-1, Gp-2, Gp-3. (3) , (4) , (5) , (6) , (7) , (8) , (9)

Precautions

Contraindications: Pregnancy and patients without stasis.

Overdose can cause herb poisoning. In minor cases, poisoning symptoms include dizziness, nausea, lethargy, etc. In severe cases, respiratory paralysis can occur. There has been one reported incident of death by overdose. (10)

Pharmacology

Antioxidation effects

Administered to mice, water-based extract of Tao Ren can significantly inhibit alcohol-induced hepatico-glutathion depletion and lipid peroxidation, and protect the subjects against damages caused by peroxidation. (11) Tao Ren can also reduce the level of lipid peroxide in the serum as well as in liver and brain tissues, and increase the activity of SOD. (12)

Anti-hepatic fibrosis

Tao Ren extract can significantly counteract hepatic fibrosis caused by CCl4. By promoting the dissolution of collagen (types‡T, ‡V, ‡W and ‡X) as well as of fibronectin, Tao Ren can significantly reduce the formation of fibrous septa composed of collagenous fibers and reticular fibers, thus stimulating the recovery of hepatic tissues. (13)

Anti-inflammation

Administered to mice (i.g. administration at 5.084g/kg for 4 days), Tao Ren can significantly counteract egg white-induced arthritis. (14) Tao Ren has suppressive effects on fibroblast growth in in-vitro cell cultivation. Furthermore, it can suppress the proliferation of inflammatory cells and fibroblast hyperplasia in subjects of experimental trabeculae dissection . (15)

Promoting recovery from wounds

Tao Ren injection (HHI-I) can increase the partial pressure of oxygen in the subcutaneous tissue of the ischemic rabbit ear that is caused by direct skin incision. This promotes blood flow in the microcirculation of ischemic skin, thus aiding the recovery from the incision. (16)

Suppressing platelet aggregation

Both in in vivo and in vitro models, Tao Ren can suppress the aggregation of platelets induced by the thrombin and diphosphric acid (ADP). This effect intensifies as the dose increases. In people with normal or high incidence of platelet aggregation, Tao Ren can significantly suppress the aggregation of platelets. (17)

Effects on the circulatory system

Tao Ren can significantly promote the blood flow in dogs’ femoral artery, reducing vascular resistance. Also it can significantly increase the flow of perfusate in exsomatized rabbit ear vessels, and counteract the contractile effect of levarterenol on the vessel. (18)

Others

Tao Ren also has anti-allergic, (19) liver-protecting, (20) and intestine-lubricating effects. (21)

References

  1. Chen Yi Sheng, et al. Poisonous Chinese Plants. Science Press; 1987:53.
  2. Zhou Jin Huang, et al. Parmacology of TCM. Shanghai: Science and Technology Press; 1986:201.
  3. Fang Xin De, et al. Active protein components of Tao Ren. Traditional Chinese Medicine Bulletin. 1986;1(11):37-39.
  4. You Di Ci, et al. Tao Ren, the Chinese herb. Foreign Medicine, Volume of TCM. 1983;(3):50.
  5. Zhuang Si Shun San, et al. Tao Ren: its chemistry, pharmacology, and biochemistry. Foreign Medicine, Volume of TCM. 1987;(4):31-36.
  6. Liu Qing Zeng. The pharmcology of Tao Ren’s water-soluable components. Journal of Chinese Patented Medicine Research. 1987;(8):47.
  7. Zhou Jin Huang, et al. Parmacology of TCM. Shanghai: Science and Technology Press; 1986:201.
  8. Jiang Chun Hua, et al. Research on Promoting Blood Circulation By Removing Blood Stasis. Shanghai: Science and Technology Press; 1981.
  9. Rui He Kai, et al. The chemical composition of Tao Ren oil. Journal of Chinese Patent Medicine. 1992;14(2):33.
  10. Chen Qi. Experiments in TCM Pharmacology. Guizhou: People’s Press; 1988.
  11. Sun Wei Qiang, et al. Tao Ren’s effect in counteracting liver damages due to lipid peroxidation. Hunan Journal of Medicine. 1993;9(6):47-48.
  12. Jiang Chen Mei, et al. Tao Ren’s effect on in vitro and in vivo rat lipid peroxidation. Journal of Bengbu Medical College. 1995;20(2):81-82.
  13. Xu Lie Ming, et al. Tao Ren extract’s effect in counteracting experimental liver fibrosis—an immunohistochemistry and collagen metabolism research. Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Application of TCM. 1993;9(5):14-16.
  14. Liu Can Hui, et al. The pharmacology of Tao Ren. Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Application of TCM. 1989;(2):46-47.
  15. Wang Su Ping, et al. Tao Ren extract’s effect in suppressing filter bed fibroblasts hyperplasia in subjects of experimental trabeculae dissection. Journal of Shanghai Medical University. 1993;20(1):35-381.
  16. Zhao Lian Gen. Tao Ren injection’s effect in promoting recovery from ischemia skin incision in rabbits. China Journal of Integrated External Medicine. 1996;2(2):112-115.
  17. Wang Ya Jun, et al. Tao Ren’s suppression of platelet aggregation. Shanghai Journal of Medicine and Drugs. 1998;19(3):27-28.
  18. Liu Can Hui, et al. The pharmacology of Tao Ren. Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Application of TCM. 1989;(2):46-47.
  19. Zhuang Si Shun San, et al. Tao Ren: its chemistry, pharmacology, and biochemistry. Foreign Medicine, Volume of TCM. 1987;(4):31-36.
  20. Yu Guang Sheng, et al. Tao Ren’s therapeutic effects on schistosomiasis-induced cirrhosis. Journal of TCM. 1986;(6): 24.
  21. Zhou Jin Huang, et al. Parmacology of TCM. Shanghai: Science and Technology Press; 1986:201.