Xing Ren

Prunus armeniaca, Apricot Seed

Dosage

Internal administration: 3 to 10g decoction or in pill or powder forms. 5:1 concentrated extract: 0.6 to 2 grams/day.

Toxicity

LD50 values for raw Xing Ren, parched Xin Ren, and steamed Xing Ren are 1624±215mg/kg, 1748 ± 112mg/kg, and 5241±704mg/kg, respectively. (1)

Chemical Composition

Amygdalin; Linoleic acid; Oleic acid; Palmitic acid; Hydrocyanic acid; Glutamic acid; Almondase; Chlorogenic acid; Inositol; Estrone; 17-b-estradiol; 3’-p-coumaroylquinic acid; 3’-feruloylguinic acid; Triolein; Benzaldehyde; Linalool; 4-terpinenol; a-terpineol. (2) , (3) , (4)

Precautions

Xing Ren is contraindicated for cough and diarrhea due to yin-deficiency. Exercise caution when administering to infants. Xing Ren is mildly toxic, and large doses should be avoided. Xing Ren and amygdalin can cause severe poisoning, resulting in dizziness, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, hypotension, rapid respiration, and arrhythmia, etc. (5) , (6) , (7) , (8)

Pharmacology

Removing phlegm, and relieving cough and asthma

Xing Ren, in raw, parched, or steamed form, can be effective in removing phlegm, and relieving cough and asthma. However, the effects of the prepared varieties are more pronounced in relieving cough and asthma. (9)

Effects on the activity of NK cells

Using 125I-deoxyuridine-tagged YAC-1 cells as the target cells, and mice’s splenic Natural Killer cells as the invading cells, experiments were set up to test the effect of Amygdalin (chemical in Xing Ren) on the activity of NK cells. The results demonstrated that amygdalin enhances the activity of mice’s in-vivo splenic NK cells. (10)

Removing free oxygen radicals and lowering cholesterol

A diet containing Tian Xing Ren (sweet almond) increased serum SOD levels and serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, lower serum MDA levels and total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratios. These effects of Xing Ren are dose dependent. (11)

Analgesic effect

The thermal plate and acetic acid body twisting testing methods illustrate that amygdalin has an analgesic effect, and the effect is not subject to tolerance development. (12)

Promote cell proliferation

Subcutaneous injections of Xing Ren at the doses of 4mg/kg and 7mg/kg promoted proliferation of liver and Kupffer cells in mice. (13) An intramuscular injection of amygdalin (at 1.5, 3, and 5mg per mouse) enhanced the mitogen-induced proliferation of splenic T cells in mice. (14)

Other effects

Both water decoctions and ether-based extracts of Xing Ren can activate EBV-EA (Epstein-Barr virus early antigen) in cultured Raji cells (human lymphoma) in-vitro, with the minimum effective concentration being 4 ìg/ml for the ether-based extract, and 400 ìg/ml for the water decoction. Both the raw herb and the prepared varieties of Xing Ren have a laxative effect, but this effect is more distinctive in the prepared varieties. (15) Intravenous injections of amygdalin can promote the phagocytic activity of Kupffer’s cells and tracheal, bronchial, and lung alveoli macrophages in mice. (16) Amygdalin enhances the activity of cytochrome oxidase in cerebral ischemia. (17)

References

  1. Zhang Wen Juan, et al. Processed Xing Ren: Its potency and acute toxicity. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine Material. 1991;14(8):38-40.
  2. Ding Dong Ning, et al. Chemical composition of Ku Xing Ren (Semen Armeniacae). Northwestern Journal of Pharmacy. 1990;(3):21-23.
  3. Wang Ren Tang. How processing affects the content of protein in Xing Ren products. Journal of Chinese Patented Medicine. 1993;15(6):42.
  4. Editorial Committee of Chinese Materia Medica, State Drug Administration of China. Chinese Materia Medica. Shanghai Science and Technology Press, 1998.
  5. Zhang Xiang Ru. Laetrile. Beijing Journal of Medicine. 1992;14(4):243-244.
  6. Jiang Guo Feng. One case of severe Xing Ren poisoning. Sichuan Journal of TCM. 1988;6(11).
  7. Li Xu Feng, et al. 2 cases of severe arrhythmia caused by Xing Ren poisoning. China Journal of Village Medicine. 1997;25(12):27.
  8. Liu Qiu Feng. 5 cases of Xing Ren acute poisoning. Liaoning Journal of Medicine. 1992;6(3):162.
  9. Zhang Wen Juan, et al. Processed Xing Ren: Its potency and acute toxicity. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine Material. 1991;14(8):38-40.
  10. Zhao Su Lian, et al. Amygdalin’s effects on the activity of mice’s splenic NK cells. Journal of Shanxi College of Medicine. 1993;24(1):14-16.
  11. Dilinuer Taji, et al. Xing Ren’s effect on serum SOD and MDA levels in quails of experimental hyperlipidemia. Journal of Xinjiang University of Medicine. 1999;22(3):178-179.
  12. Zhu You Ping, et al. Amygdalin’s analgesic effect. China Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1994;19(2):105-107.
  13. Li Chun Hua, et al. Amygdalin’s effect on the proliferation of liver and kidney cells in mice. Journal of Shanxi College of Medicine. 1991;22(2):88-90,195.
  14. Zhao Su Lian, et al. Amygdalin’s effects on immunological functions in mice. Shanxi Journal of Medicine. 1993;22(3):166.
  15. Liang Ai Hua, et al. The effect of processing on Xing Ren’s toxicity and potency. China Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1993;18(8):474-478.
  16. Li Chun Hua, et al. Amygdalin’s effect on mononuclear macrophages’ phagocytotic function. Journal of Shanxi College of Medicine. 1991;22(1):1-3,79.
  17. Yang Xiao Ping, et al. Amygdalin’s effect on cytochrome oxidase in cerebral ischemia. Journal of New Chinese Medicine and Clinical Pharmacology. 1996;7(2):50-51.