Di Long

Pheretima, Earthworm

Dosage

Decoction 5 to 10g. Pill or powder 1 to 2g. Fresh preparations is orally taken with sugar or salt. 5:1 concentrated extract: 1 to 2g.

Toxicity

LD50 value of lumbricin intravenously injected into mice is 2914.74mg/kg with its 95% confidence limit at 3236.68 to 2624.82 mg/kg. (1) LD50 value of Di Long infusion at a low temperature is 3.4 g/kg for intra-abdominal injection into mice. (2)

Chemical Composition

Arachidic acid; Arachidonic acid; 17-carbonic acid; 19-carbenic acid; Oleic acid; Linoleic acid; Stearic acid; Threonine; Valine; Leucine; Isoleucine; Lysine; Methionine; Phenylalanine; Tryptophan; 1-0-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycerophosphocholine; Phosphatidyl choline; Fibrinolysin; Plasminogen activator; Cholinesterase; Catalase; Antimicrobic protein; Contractile protein; Hemolytic protein; Hypoxanthine; Xanthine; Guanine; Uracil; Amber acid. (3) , (4) , (5) , (6) , (7) , (8) , (9) , (10) , (11)

Inorganic Chemicals

It also contains trace elements such as Zn, Cu, Fe, Cr, Mo, Ca, and Mg among others.

Precautions

Patients with insufficiency of the spleen-yang and pregnant women should not take this herb. Orally taking Di Long may cause vomiting due to its strong fishy taste. The reaction can be lessened by adding a small amount of Chen Pi (Citrus) to Di Long for decoction or by frying Di Long and grinding it into powder for capsule. There have been reports of allergic shock and cutaneous pruritus caused by orally taking Di Long, as well as allergic enteritis caused by orally taking dry Di Long, and allergic reactions caused by injecting compound Di Long liquid. (12) , (13) , (14) , (15)

Pharmacology

Analgesic and antipyretic effects

Di Long powder has a significant analgesic effect. When used with paracetamol, it has synergistic effects. Di Long powder has a significant antipyretic effect in rabbits with fevers caused by bacteria endotoxins but without significant synergistic effects with paracetamol. (16)

Effects of reducing blood pressure

An intravenous injection of a Di Long infusion (0.1g/kg) at a low temperature has a slow and lasting effect of reducing blood pressure in rabbits and rats under normal anesthesia. The peak reduction of blood pressure occurs 90 minutes after administration and generally lasts 2 to 3 hours. It has also been shown that a Di Long infusion at low temperatures has a very significant effect in reducing blood pressure on rats with renal hypertension. (17)

Anticoagulant and thrombolytic effects

An intravenous injection of Di Long fibrinolytic enzyme F2 in rabbits can significantly extend coagulation time, prothrombin time, and significantly reduce the plasma levels of fibrinogen, while enhancing the plasma euglobulin lysis activity and significantly decreasing the weight of the thrombus model. (18) An intravenous injection of Di Long extract to Sprague Dawley rats can rapidly enhance the activity of general plasminogen activator. (19)

Effects of anti-fertility and resisting trichomonas vaginalis

In vitro experiments show that Di Long extract can rapidly kill human sperm. At a concentration of 1.2%, it can inactivate all sperm within 20 seconds. It has been shown that Di Long extract also has a strong effect of resisting Trichomonas vaginalis. At a concentration of 0.2% or greater, it can kill all Trichomonas vaginalis 8 and 24 hours after administration without reoccurrence. (20) The active sperm-killing ingredients of Di Long tissue mainly are total Di Long acid and total Di Long. Among the Di Long acids, succinic acid is the most effective sperm-killing substance found. In coordination with succinic acid, the other organic acids in Di Long can significantly increase sperm-killing effects 6 fold. Therefore, the sperm-killing effects of Di Long total acid can be attributed to the combined effects of the various acids found within it. (21)

Effect of strengthening immunity

A perfusion of Di Long extract in different concentrations in the stomach of mice can significantly enhance the macrophage activation rate, strengthen the function of the Fc receptor on the cell surface, and enhance their phagocytotic power. Di Long can significantly strengthen immune functions of macrophages and may play an important role in shortening the inflammation period and may promote wound recovery. (22)

Promoting wound recovery

Di Long has been shown to promote the growth of fibroblasts, capillaries, collagenous fibers, and DNA in granulation tissue of wounded rabbits. It can also significantly increase the amount of actin in muscular tissue, enhance the healing rate of the epidermis and muscle, and significantly promote the healing of wounds. (23)

Anticancer effect

Di Long capsules (912) have an inhibiting effect on transplanted tumors (S180, S794, H22 and EMT-6) in mice. Clinical research shows that 912 has an inhibiting effect on carcinoma of esophagus with a partial remission rate of 43% at the late stage. The combined use of 912 with chemotherapy has an effectiveness rate of 79.1% on lung cancer, a rate that is superior to that of chemotherapy when used alone (57.1%) (P

Effects on ACE activity

In vitro experiments show that a Di Long infusion at low temperature has an inhibitory effect on the activity of angiotensin conversion enzyme (ACE) in a serum with an inhibition rate of 90.2%. (24)

References

  1. Tang Ben Sui, et al. Acute toxicity experiments on lumbricin. Journal of Shizhen Medicine. 1999;10(9):652.
  2. Li Shu Lan, et al. Research on Di Long’s effect in lowering blood pressure. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine Information. 1995;12(3):22-24.
  3. Wang Guang Zhong, et al. Chemical composition analysis of Di Long related herbal material. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine Material. 1998;21(3):133-135.
  4. Chen Jing Bin, et al. Chemical composition analysis of Di Long. Journal of Chinese Patented Medicine. 1997;19(5):35-36.
  5. Cheng Neng Neng, et al. Di Long phospholipid structure and platelet activating factor synthesis. Journal of Pharmacy. 1992;27(12):886.
  6. Zhao Xiao Yu, et al. Analysis of earthworm fibrinolytic enzymes composition. China Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 1998;14(4):407-411.
  7. Yang Xi Shu, et al. Research on part of earthworm’s e-PA characteristics. China Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 1998;14(2):164-169.
  8. Yan Shu Fang, et al. Eisenia foetida fibrinolytic enzymes research VIII: determination of fibrinolytic enzymes active components. Heilongjiang Journal of Medicine. 1999;12(5):263-264.
  9. Wang Zhong Wei, et al. Research advances on earthworm bioengineering technology. Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 2000;31(5):386-389.
  10. Hu Sheng, et al. Determination and comparison of between hypoxanthine from various LU produced and Guan Dong produced Di Long. Journal of Chinese Patented Medicine. 1994;16(1):42-43.
  11. Li Wei, et al. Using HPLC to determine quantity of hypoxanthine, xanthine, uracil, and uridyl in Di Long. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine Material. 1996;19(12):625-627.
  12. Tong Zheng Jun. One case of allergic shock induced by Chinese herb Di Long. Hebei Journal of Integrated Medicine. 1996;5(2):50.
  13. Li Fu Wei, et al. One case of Di Long induced cutaneous pruritus. Shaanxi Journal of TCM. 2000;21(1):26.
  14. Bo Huang Li, et al. One report of Di Long induced allergic enteritis. Journal of Shizhen Medicine. 1998;9(5):402.
  15. One report of allergic reaction caused by Di Long formula injection solution. Journal of Modern Medicine. 1972;(7):33.
  16. Chen Bin Yan, et al. Analgesic and antipyretic effects of Di Long powder in mice, rats and rabbits. Journal of Shanghai Medical University. 1996;23(3):225-226,240.
  17. Li Shu Lan, et al. Research on Di Long’s effect in lowering blood pressure. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine Information. 1995;12(3):22-24.
  18. Yang Shu Dong, et al. Fibrinolytic enzymes active components’ effects in counteracting coagulation and dissolving thrombus. Journal of Heart, Lung and Vascular Diseases. 1997;18(5):252-254.
  19. Wei Cai Zhi, et al. Experimental research on earthworm extract fibrinolytic enzymes and its effects in counteracting coagulation. China Journal of Biochemical Medicinal Material. 1997;18(5):252-254.
  20. Guo Bao Zhu, et al. Experimental research on earthworm extract’s effects in killing sperms in vitro and in counteracting Trichomonas vaginalis. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine Research. 1997;13(4):39-41.
  21. Zhang Fu Xia, et al. Experimental research on products from earthworm’s body that kills sperms. Shaanxi Journal of TCM. 1996;17(5):234-236.
  22. Zhang Feng Chun, et al. Di Long’s enhancing effect on macrophages’ immune activity. China Journal of Pharmacy. 1998;33(9):532-535.
  23. Zhang Feng Chun, et al. Research into Di Long’s mechanism in its recovery effects on rabbit back injury. China Journal of Pharmacy. 1999;34(2):93-96.
  24. Geng Xiu Fang, et al. Effects of Di Long infusion at low temperature on ACE activity. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine Information. 1997;14(6):38.