Shui Niu Jiao

Cornu Bubali, Buffalo Horns

Dosage

Oral administration: 15 to 30g or large doses of 60 to 120g decocted in water. The herb should be decocted for 3 hours; 3 to 9g of powder, or 1.5 to 3g of concentrated powder. External application: a proper amount of the powder can be applied to the local area.

Chemical Composition

Cholesterol; Peptide; Keratin fiber; Glutamic acid; Aspartic acid; Serine; Cystine; Leucine; Arginine. (1) , (2) , (3) , (4) , (5)

Inorganic Chemicals

It also includes trace elements such as Na, Mg, Ca, K, Fe, and Zn.

Precautions

Patients with insufficiency and cold of middle-jiao should use this herb with caution.

Pharmacology

Analgesic effect

Mao Xiao Jian, et al. conducted studies on Shui Niu Jiao’s analgesic effects. They reported that Shui Niu Jiao had significant effectiveness in relieving pain. It also was reported that it decreases edema in the ears and feet of mice. (6) These results indicate that it has useful anti-inflammatory properties. Another study reported that a Shui Niu Jiao decoction, made from a concentrated powder, remarkably inhibited Bacillus coli (Escherichia Coli) endotoxin-induced death in mice, indicating usage as an anti-infective. (7)

Enhancing immunity

Mao Xiao Jian, et al. reported that, when given to mice, Shui Niu Jiao increased the number of white blood cells (WBC) and the weight of the thymus gland in immune-compromised mice. However, it had no significant effect on the spleen. (8) Wu Xiao Yi reported that, when given Shui Niu Jiao, the number of WBC increased, producing antibodies that counteracted bacteria in the reticuloendothelial system in mice, which is the system that defends the body from infection. (9)

Effects on blood coagulation function

Shui Niu Jiao has been shown to shorten coagulation time. Studies conducted with rats with DIC (Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation) which is a condition caused by an injury (such as a snake bite) or disease where the body produces too much blood clotting substance. This in turn causes the body to produce too much anti-clotting substances. It significantly shortened kaolin partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and thrombin time, and increased the quantity of blood platelets. (10) , (11) , (12)

Sedation

It was reported that Shui Niu Jiao, combined with pentobarbital sodium (a sedative) prolonged sleeping time in mice. (13)

Effects on the heart

Zhou Er Feng reported that a Shui Niu Jiao decoction or extract (1g/ml) had potent actions on normal and in vitro toad hearts, especially on the attenuation of the cardiac contractility. Overdoses of Shui Niu Jiao resulted in the heartbeat faltering during the systole stage. (14)

References

  1. Zhou Jian Jun, et al. Extracting cystine and tyrosin from Niu Jiao. Northwestern Journal of Pharmacy. 1994;9(4):157-158.
  2. Hong Xiao Kun, et al. Comparative research on inorganic elements in Guang Jiao, Shui Niu Jiao, and Huang Niu Jiao. China Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1996;21(2):76-77.
  3. Fan Guang Ping, et al. Comparative research on amino acid of Guang Jiao, Shui Niu Jiao, and Huang Niu Jiao. China Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1996;21(3):139-141.
  4. He Xiao Ping, et al. Inquiry into quality inspection of concentrated Shui Niu Jiao powder. Journal of Chinese Patented Medicine. 1989;11(6):15-16.
  5. Jia Yuan Yin, et al. Comparative analysis on hydracid and trace elements in Shui Niu Jian and Ling Yang Jiao. Journal of Shizhen Medicinal Material Research. 1997;8(3):216-217.
  6. Mao Xiao Jian, et al. Experimental research on mixture of Cao Wu and Shui Niu Jiao. Journal of Yunnan College of TCM. 1997;19(7):33-34.
  7. Jin Ruo Ming, et al. Research on pharmacological effects of Xi Niu and Shui Niu Jiao. Journal of Chinese Patented Medicine. 1997;19(7):33-34.
  8. Mao Xiao Jian, et al. Experimental research on mixture of Cao Wu and Shui Niu Jiao. Journal of Yunnan College of TCM. 1997;19(7):33-34.
  9. Wu Xiao Yi, et al. Brief discussion on Shui Niu Jiao. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine Material. 1985;(5):41,38.
  10. Jin Ruo Ming, et al. Research on pharmacological effects of Xi Niu and Shui Niu Jiao. Journal of Chinese Patented Medicine. 1997;19(7):33-34.
  11. Wu Xiao Yi, et al. Brief discussion on Shui Niu Jiao. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine Material. 1985;(5):41,38.
  12. Zhou Er Feng, et al. Research on Niu Jiao’s extract: I. effects on heart and blood pressure. Journal of Pharmacy. 1962;9(9):517-523.
  13. Jin Ruo Ming, et al. Research on pharmacological effects of Xi Niu and Shui Niu Jiao. Journal of Chinese Patented Medicine. 1997;19(7):33-34.
  14. Zhou Er Feng, et al. Research on Niu Jiao’s extract: I. effects on heart and blood pressure. Journal of Pharmacy. 1962;9(9):517-523.