Dang Shen

Radix Codonopsis Pilosulae, Codonopsis

Dosage

Decoction: 6 to15g is orally taken. The herb can be made into pills, powder, or paste. The raw herb is appropriate for promoting body fluid production to help nourish the blood. The processed herb is suitable for invigorating the spleen to benefit the lungs. 5:1 concentrated extract: 1.2 to 3g/day.

Toxicity

LD50 for intra-abdominal injection of Dang Shen polysaccharides is 2.06±0.28g/kg.

Chemical Composition

Fructose; Inulin; Acidic polysaccharide; Fructose CP1, CP2, CP3, and CP4; Tangshenoside; Choline; Codonopsine; Codonopsinine; Threonine; Valine; Methionine; Isoleucine; Leucine; Phenylalanine; Aspartic acid; Histidine; Serine; Glutamic acid; Glycine; Alanine; Cystine; Arginine; Proline; Taraxerol; Taraxeryl acetate; Friedelin; Steroline; Phytosterol; a-spinasterol; a-spinasteryl-b-D-glucoside; Stigmast-7-en-3 b-ol; D7 -stigmastenyl-b-D-glucoside; Stigmasterol; Stigmasteryl-b-D-glucoside; Stigmasta-7-ene-3-one; Stigmasta-7,22-dien-3-one; Stigmasta-5,22-dien-3-one; a-spinasterol glucoside; N-butyl-a-D-fructofuranoside; N-butyl-b-D-fructopyranoside; 9,10,13,-trihydroxy-(E)-11-COctadecenoic acid; (6R,7R),E,-tetradeca-4,12-diene-8,10-diyne-1,6,7-triol; 9,11-linoleic acid; 6-phenyl nonanoic acid; 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxy-methyl); 9,12- linoleic acid; 2-methyl-hexadecanic acid; Hexadecylenic acid; Lecithin; Palmitic acid; 10-linoleic acid; 6,9- linoleic acid methyl ester; Palmitic acid methyl ester (28.04%); a-pinene; Nona-2,4-dienal; Borneol; d-guaiene; a-curcumene; Codopiloic acid; 5-methylol-2-furfuraldehyde; Syringaldehyde; Vanillic acid; 2-furan carboxylic acid; Atractylenolide; 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde; Methylpalmitate; Vitamins A, E, B1, B2, B6, C, K1, beta-carotene; L-Asparagine. (1) , (2) , (3) , (4) , (5) , (6) , (7) , (8) , (9) , (10) , (11) , (12) , (13) , (14) , (15) , (16) , (17) , (18) , (19) , (20) , (21) , (22) , (23) , (24)

Inorganic Chemicals

Also contains trace elements such as Fe, Cu, Co, Mn, Zn, Ni, Sr, Al, V and F.

Precautions

Patients with excess and heat syndromes should be prohibited from taking the drug. It is appropriate for the herb to be used alone for patients with body resistance weakened while pathogenic factors prevail.

Pharmacology

Anti-stress effects

Experiments on mice have confirmed that both wild and cultured Dang Shen can significantly extend the swimming time (P

Anti-oxidation effects

A Dang Shen water based extract can significantly reduce lipid peroxide (LPO) levels in the cerebral tissue in mice, and in the red blood cells of mice and rats. It can also significantly enhance superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the blood serum of adult rats. (25)

Effects of reducing blood lipids

Both alcohol and water extracts of Dang Shen can significantly reduce serum blood levels of cholesterol in rats with experimental hyperlipidemia. CSD at 2.5g/kg (with the reduction rate of 45.32%) is superior to atromid-S (with the reduction rate of 40.49%). They can also reduce serum triglycerides (TG) and enhance the ratio of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) to various degrees. (26)

Effects on gastrointestinal motion

Dang Shen decoctions can significantly enhance the propulsion rate in the small intestines of mice with third degree burns. The effect is dosage dependent. 0.1g/d can significantly enhance the propulsion rate in small intestine and 0.2g/d can make the propulsion rate reach a constant level, thus improving the motion of the intestine after being scalded. (27) Decoctions of Dang Shen can significantly increase the blood flow and oxygen consumption in the small intestine of dogs as well as the oxygen consumption in isolated enteric mucosa. (28)

Effects on cardiovascular system

In an isolated rat heart model with damage due to ischemia and reperfusion, Dang Shen can enhance SOD activity in the cardiac muscles, reduce MDA levels, decrease the release of creatine kinase, which significantly improved contraction and diastolization of the cardiac muscle, and promote the flow of the coronary artery, stroke output, and heart rate. Dang Shen also has some protective effects against damage to LPO of the cardiac muscle tissue due to ischemia and re-perfusion, thereby improving heart function. (29)

Effects on blood

Extracts from processed Dang Shen products can extend prothrombin time (PT) and thrombin time (TT) in rabbit plasma, can prolong blood coagulation of mice, and can significantly inhibit platelet aggregation in rabbits induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP). (30) The effects of Dang Shen extracts with different concentrations on rat cardiac muscle cell result in different inhibition levels of phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity in platelets, decreases in hydrolysis, and an increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level. As concentration increases, the inhibition rate on calmodulin (CaM) activity is enhanced. (31)

Strengthening immunity

A perfusion of a Dang Shen decoction or polysaccharides administered to mice can significantly increase the weight of the spleen and thymus and the total number of white blood cells and lymphocytes. It has a significant antagonistic effect on a hydrocortisone-induced reduction of the total white blood cells and the number of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. It increases the positive percentage of a-ANAE of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and carbon granular clearance of intravenous injection to mice, and significantly inhibits the delayed allergic reaction caused by dinitrochlorobenzene in mice. (32) An intra-abdominal injection of a Dang Shen liquid administered to mice, it significantly strengthened the phagocytic function of macrophages with light blue and dark blue fluorescence and the phagocytic activity of macrophages with light blue-green and yellow fluorescence. Dang Shen has an effect on macrophage function in mice abdominal cavity. (33)

Effects on central nervous system

A Dang Shen water extract at 4g/kg and 8g/kg significantly shortened the latent period and significantly decreased error times of old mice in water maze experiments. It has been shown to improve learning and memory capacity of old mice. (34) An intra-abdominal injection of Dang Shen polysaccharides at 102mg/kg and 204mg/kg can extend the latent period of convulsions caused by strychnine, reduce the body temperature of normal mice and rats with experimental fever, and inhibit the body-torsion reaction of mice induced by acetic acid. (35)

References

  1. Cai Ding Guo, et al. Research on Dang Shen chemical composition (Second Report). Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 1982;13(10):11-12.
  2. Zhang Si Ju, et al. Research on Dang Shen polysaccharides. Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 1987;18(3):2.
  3. Wei Jia Lu, et al. Research on Dang Shen chemical composition. China Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1990;15(2):41-42.
  4. Sha De Zhi, et al. Research on Wen Dang Shen chemical composition. Journal of Beijing College of TCM. 1987;10(6): 36-38.
  5. Sha De Zhi, et al. Research condition on herbs that use Dang Shen. China Journal of Pharmacy. 1989;24(51):270.
  6. Chen Jian Wei, et al. Analysis of amino acids in Jiangsu Province cultivated and wild Ming Dang Shen. Journal of Nanjing College of TCM. 1988;8(3):143-146.
  7. Sha De Zhi, et al. Determination of amino acids and trace elements in eight kinds of herbs that use Dang Shen. Journal of Medicine Analysis. 1988;8(3):143-146.
  8. Wang Yin, et al. Research on Dang Shen chemical composition (First Report). Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 1982;13(1):1-3.
  9. Xu Ren Liu, et al. Quantity determination of lipid soluble components of Tai Dang Shen and Lu Dang Shen. China Journal of Pharmacy. 1994;29(6):358-360.
  10. Chen Hai Sheng, et al. Research in Dang Shen chemical composition (III). Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 1985;16(7):7.
  11. Wang Yin, et al. Research in Dang Shen chemical composition (IV). Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 1986;17(5):41.
  12. Chen Ye Gao, et al. Research on Yun Shen chemical composition. China Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1995;20(10):611-612.
  13. Wang Jian Zhong, et al. Research in Chuan Dang Shen chemical composition. Journal of Research and Development of Natural Resources. 1995;20(10):611-612.
  14. Li Xiang, et al. Accelerated analysis of Ming Dang Shen’s lipid oil component GC/MS. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine Material. 1992;15(6):26-27.
  15. Wang Ya Shu, et al. Research on phospholipid components in processed Ming Dang Shen products. Journal of Chinese Patented Medicine. 1992;14(9):21-22.
  16. Chen Jian Wei, et al. Preliminary analysis of GC-MS in Ming Dang Shen’s volatile oil. Journal of Nanjing College of TCM. 1992;8(4):223.
  17. Miao Jie, et al. Research on Dang Shen chemical composition V. Research on volatiles oil components. Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 1987;18(9):2-4.
  18. Wang Hui Kang, et al. Research on Dang Shen chemical composition II. Structure determination and separation of codopiloic acid and codonolactone. Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 1991;22(5):195-197.
  19. Sha De Zhi, et al. Research on Wen Dang Shen chemical components. Journal of Beijing College of TCM. 1987;10(6):36-38.
  20. Guo Ya Jian, et al. Separation and determination of choline in Dang Shen. Journal of Beijing College of TCM. 1988;11(4):43.
  21. Chen Hai Sheng, et al. Research on Dang Shen chemical composition III. Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 1985;16(7):7.
  22. Chen Jian Wei, et al. Research on trace elements accumulation in Jiangsu Province cultivated Ming Dang Shen. Journal of Research and Development of Natural Resources. 1992;8(4):233.
  23. Bu Kui Shan, et al. Analysis of vitamins in Lun Ye Dang Shen. Journal of Special Product Research. 1998;(4):11-12,21.
  24. Li Xiang, et al. Separation, determination, quantity analysis of water soluble active components in Ming Dang Shen. Journal of Research and Development of Natural Resources. 1995;7(2):1-5.
  25. Han Chun Ji, et al. Lun Ye Dang Shen’s anti-oxidation on senile mice. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine Material. 1999;22(3):136-138.
  26. Hua Yi Li, et al. Experimental research on Ming Dang Shen’s effect in lowering blood lipid level. Journal of Nanjing College of TCM. 1994;10(4):31-32.
  27. Wang Shao Gen, et al. Dang Shen’s effect on gastrointestinal motility in mice at early stage of third degree burn. Journal of Anhui College of TCM. 1999;18 (6):50-51.
  28. Li Shao Zhi, et al. Dang Shen’s effects blood flow volume in small intestine and oxygen consumption. China Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1999;24(5):299-302.
  29. Guo Zi Qiang, et al. Dang Shen’s protective effects on rat isolated cardiac damage due to cardiac ischemia and reperfusion. Journal of Beijing TCM University. 1995;18(5): 39-41.
  30. Li Xiang, et al. Processed Ming Dang Shen products’ effects on blood clotting time and platelet aggregation. Journal of Chinese Patented Medicine. 1998;20(7):17-19.
  31. Qin La Mei, et al. Experimental research on Dang Shen’s effect in nourishing qi and strengthening the heart. China Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1994;19(4):238-240.
  32. Huang Tai Kang, et al. Pharmacology research on Ming Dang Shen decoction solution and polysaccharides. Journal of Chinese Patented Medicine. 1994;16(7):31-33.
  33. Liang Cong Yun, et al. Effects of the Chinese herb Dang Shen on various fluorescent stained macrophage function. China Journal of Pharmacy. 1995;(6):45-46.
  34. Han Chun Ji, et al. Lun Ye Dang Shen’s anti-oxidation on senile mice. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine Material. 1999;22(3):136-138.
  35. Sun Yu, et al. Effects of Dang Shen polysaccharides on central nervous system. Jilin Journal of TCM. 1989;(5):36-37.