Eclipta prostrata L. (Asteraceae)

Synonyms

Eclipta erecta L., Verbesina alba L., Verbesina prostrata L.

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia: Urang-uring
English: Eclipta, False Daisy, Swamp Daisy, White Eclipta
Chinese:

Hann-lian-tsao

Sanskrit:

Bhringaraja, Gunta Kalagara, Karisha Langanni, Kesharaji.

Hindi: Bhangra, Mochkand, Babri
French:

Éclipte Blanche

General Information

Description

Eclipta prostrata is an annual herb from the family Asteraceae. It is distributed throughout Asia (China, Japan, Korea), South and Southeast Asia (Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam) and in some other parts of the world (Angola, Arabian Peninsula, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Egypt, Fiji, Ghana, Iraq, Mexico, Peru, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Rhodesia, Sudan, Surinam, Trinidad, United States of America, Zambia, Zimbabwe). [1]

E. protstrata is an erect or prostrate, branching herb, with rooting at the nodes, stem and branches. The leaves measuring 2.5 to 7.5cm long are opposite, sessile and lanceolate. [2][3] The flower-heads measuring 6-8mm in diameter are solitary or with two on unequal axillary stalks. The involucral bracts are 8 to 10 in number. They are white, strigose and ligulate. The disk flower is tubular, often with 4-tubed corollas. [2]

Plant Part Used

Aerial parts, seeds and roots. [2]

Chemical Constituents

E. prostrata contains triterpenoid saponin (eclalbasaponins I-VI, XI and XII, ecliptasaponin C and D, eclalbatin), flavonoids (apegenin and luteolin), coumestans (wedelolactone, demethyldelolactone and strychnolactone) and alkaloids (25-β-hydroxyverazine, ecliptalbine, ecliptine and traces of nicotine). [2-8]

E. prostrata also contains α-formylterthienyl, α-terthienyl, sixteen related polyacetylanic thiophenes, dithienenyacetyline esters I, II, and III, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, daucoterol, stigmasterol-3-0-glucoside, nonacosanol, stearic acid, lacceroic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid, α-amyrin, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid and ascorbic acid. [2][3][5][7][8]

Traditional Use:

E. prostrata is used for the treatment of cough, asthma, parasites, edema, hematosplenomegaly, dyspepsia, anorexia, wounds, ulser, hypertension, pruritis, odontalgia, otalgia and headache. [2]

It is used as a tonic and deobstruant in traditional Indian medicine to treat obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hepatic diseases, hyperlipidemia, spleen enlargement and skin diseases. [8]

In Taiwan folk medicine, the entire plant is used as a remedy for the treatment of bleeding, haemoptysis, haematuria and itching. [9]

In Thailand, the leaf of E. prostrata has been used for hair dying and treatment of skin diseases, the stem as blood tonic and for treatment of anaemia, tuberculosis and asthma, while the root has been used as an antibacterial agent, hepatoprotectant and tonic. [10]

E. prostrata plant is used against snakebite in China and Brazil. [11][12]

 

Pre-Clinical Data

Pharmacology

Antimicrobial activity

An antimicrobial screening of 50 plants used for traditional medicine in the state of Perak, Malaysia found that the methanolic extracts of E. prostrata showed the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus. [13]

Immunomodulatory activity

E. prostrata exhibits an immunomodulatory effect on T-lymphocytes. [10]

The extract of E. prostrata exhibited high inhibitory activity against HIV-1 integrase with an IC­50 of 21μg/mL. Further analysis of the compounds in the extract revealed that wedelolactone has the highest activity against HIV-1 integrase (IC50 of 4.0 ± 0.2μg/mL), followed by orobol (IC50 of 8.1 ± 0.5μg/mL). Analysis of the compounds in the extract for HIV-1 protease inhibitory activity showed 5-hydroxymethyl-(2,2’:5’,2’’)-terthienyl tiglate to have an appreciable activity against HIV-1 protease (IC50 of 58.3 ± 0.8μg/mL), followed by ecliptal (IC50 of 83.3 ± 1.6μg/mL) and 5-hydroxymethyl-(2,2’:5’,2’’)-terthienyl acetate (IC50 of 93.7 ± 0.8μg/mL). [10]

Hepatoprotective activity

E. prostrata has potent hepatoprotective activity by regulating the levels of hepatic microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes. [14]

The crude E. prostrata extracts significantly inhibited the acute elevation of serum transaminases induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice (31.25μL/kg, i.p.) and by β-D-galactosamine in rats (188mg/kg, i.p.). The extract also significantly ameliorates histopathological changes in the liver induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice and β-D-galactosamine in rats. However, it did not exhibit statistical significance in the inhibition of the acute elevation of serum transaminases and improvement of histopathological changes induced by acetaminophen in mice (600mg/kg, i.p.). [9]

Antihyperlipidemic activity

The total alcoholic extract of E. prostrata exhibited a dose-dependant antihyperlipidemic activity in albino rats administered with exogenous cholesterol. It significantly lowered the total lipid and cholesterol level  at 150mg/kg dose. A higher dosage of the extract was needed to decrease phospholipids and fatty acids levels in the cholesterol-treated animals.  The antihyperlipidemic activity of E. prostrata alcoholic extract was comparable to standard drugs treatment such as clofibrate and guggul. [8]

Cardiac depressant activity

The effects induced by E. prostrata extract on the cardiac frequency and the coronary outflow in isolated rabbit heart were minimal. The alcoholic extract induced a dose-dependant negative inotropic effect with about 65% reduction in cardiac contractility at 1mg dose. [15]

Antivenom activity

The wedelolactone contained in E. prostrata was found to exert anti-venom activities against South American crotalid venoms of Crotalus durissus terrificus, Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu, Lachesis muta, Crotalus viridis viridis and Agkistrodon contortrix. [11][12][16][17][18]

E. prostrata butalonic extract was found to neutralize the lethal and hemorrhagic effects of the Malayan pit viper venom at 2.5mg dose in mice. [11]

Toxicities

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

The powdered drug containing E. prostrata was found to be useful in the treatment of jaundice in children. [8]

the treatment with E. prostrata powder (50mg/kg body weight) and honey for 5 weeks cured 80% of 50 children suffering from hepatitis. In another clinical trial, treatment with E. prostrata powder cured 100% infective hepatitis patients. [19]

A herbal preparation containing E. prostrata as one of its ingrediants was found to be useful in terms of clinical and biochemical parameters compared to placebo group in treatment of viral hepatitis. [19]

The combination of Clarina cream  (a herbal medication) and Purim tablets (containing extract of different herbs including E. prostrata) can be useful to treat patients with grade II and III acne vulgaris. In a clinical trial conducted in 76 patients aged between 16 to 24, 56.25% and 38.30% patients with grade II and III acne respectively had an excellent response while 43.75% and 56.66% patients with grade II and III acne respectively had a good response and 5% of the patients with grade III acne had moderate response. [14]

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Use in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

Not recommended during breastfeeding. [20]

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation

Geriatrics

No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

 

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

 

Contraindications

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

 

Read More

  1)  Botanical Info

References

    1. Catindig JLA, Lubigan RT, Johnson D. Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. http://www.irri.org/irrc/weeds/Key%20to%20Weeds/html/Eclipta.htm. [Accessed on 12 Nov 2007]
    2. Coldecott T. Bhringaraja. (Eclipta alba). Ayuverdic Herbs Plant Monographs, 2006. .
    3. from Herbal Monograph, Himalaya Herbal Healthcare: http://www.himalayahealthcare.com/herbfinder/h_eclipt.htm. [Accessed on 12 Nov 2007]
    4. Zhao YP, Tang HF, Jiang YP, Wang ZZ, Yi YH, Lei QY. Triterpenoid saponins from Eclipta prostrata L. (article in Chinese). Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao - Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. 2001; 36(9):660-663.
    5. Zhang M., Chen Y. Chemical constituents of Eclipta alba (L.) (article in Chinese). Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1996; 21(8):480-481.
    6. Zhang M, Chen YY, Di XH, Liu M. Isolation and identification of ecliptasaponin D from Eclipta alba L. (article in Chinese). Yao Xue Xue Bao.1997; 32(8):633-634.
    7. Zhang JS, Guo QM. Studies on the chemical constituents of Eclipta prostrata (L.) (article in Chinese). Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao - Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica.2001; 36(1):34-37.
    8. Kumari CS, Govindasamy S, Sukumar E. Lipid lowering activity of Eclipta prostrata in experimental hyperlipidemia. Journal of Ethnopharmacology.2006; 105:332-335.
    9. Lin SC, Yao CJ. Hepatoprotective activity of Taiwan folk medicine: Eclipta prostrata Linn. against various hepatotoxins induced acute hepatotoxicity. Phytotherapy Research.1996; 10:483-490.
    10. Tewtrakul S, Subhadhirasakul S, Cheenpracha S, Karalai C. HIV-1 protease and HIV-1 integrase inhibitory substances from E. prostrata. Phytotherapy Research, doi: 10.1002/ptr.2252, 2007.
    11. Pithayanakul P, Laovachirauwan S, Bavovada R, Pakmanee N, Suttisri R. Anti-venom potential of butanolic extract of Eclipta prostrata against Malayan pit viper venom. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2004; 90:347-352.
    12. Melo PA, do Nascimento MC, Mors WB, Suarez-Kurtz G. Inhibition of the myotoxic and hemorrhagic activities of crotalid venoms by Eclipta prostrata (Asteraceae) extracts and constituents. Toxicon. 1994; 32(5):595-603.
    13. Wiart C, Mogana S, Khalifah S, Mahan M, Ismail S, Buckle M, Narayana AK, Sulaiman M. Antimicrobial screening of plants used for traditional medicine in the state of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. Fitoterapia. 2004; 75:68-73.
    14. Gopal MG, Farahana B. Effectiveness of herbal medications in the treatment of acne vulgaris – a pilot study. The Indian Practitioner. 2001; 54(10):723.
    15. Sajid TM, Rashid S, Ahmad M, Khan U. Estimation of cardiac depressant activity of ten medicinal plant extracts from Pakistan. Phytotherapy Research.1996; 10:178-180.
    16. Melo PA, Mors WB, do Nascimento MC, Suarez-Kurtz G. Antagonism of the myotoxin and hemorrhagic effects of crotalidae venoms by Eclipta prostrata extracts and constituents. XIth International Congress of Pharmacology, Amsterdam. 1990; 183:572.
    17. Martz W. Plants with a reputation against snakebite. Toxicon, 30(10):1131-1142, 1992.
    18. Mors WB, do Nascimento MC, Parente JP, da Silva MH, Melo PA, Suarez-Kurtz G. Neutralization of lethel and myotoxic activities of South American rattlesnake venom by extracts and constituents of the plant Eclipta prostrata (Asteraceae). Toxicon. 1989; 27(9):1003-1009.
    19. Eclipta prostrata L. – Clinical trials. Database on Important Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. http://www.ics.trieste.it/MedicinalPlant/_MedicinalPlant_ClinicalTrials.aspx?id=36.[Accessed on 12 Nov 2007]
    20. Eclipta prostrata L. – Contraindications. Database on Important Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. http://www.ics.trieste.it/MedicinalPlant/_MedicinalPlant_Contraindications.aspx?id=36.[Accessed on 12 Nov 2007]