Apium graveolens L.

Synonyms

No documentation

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia: Daun Salederi, Selderi, Seladeri, Daun Sop
English: Celery, Wild Celery, Marsh Parsley, Smallage, Kinchai
Chinese:  Han Qin, Qin Cai, Yang Qin Cai
Sundanese:  Saladri
Thai:  Tango
Hindi:  Ajmod [1]

General Information

Description

Apium graveolens L. belonging to the family Apiaceae, is a biennial plant with a ridged, shiny stem and can grow to a height of 45cm. This popular aromatic herb and spice is grown in Malaysia from imported seeds. The small, brown seeds or commonly called fruits have characteristic celery odour and taste.[2]

Plant Part Used

Entire plant, stem, root and seeds.[1]

Chemical Constituents

The seeds of Apium graveolens L. contain 1.5-3% essential oil, mainly D-limonene (60%), sesquiterpenes (10%), β-selinene and humulenes; coumarins, flavonoids and furocoumarins. Phthalides (3%); mainly 3-butylphthalide and traces of 5,6-dihydro derivative sedanenolide, also present in the celery oil, impart its characteristic odour.[2][3] Steam distillation of A. graveolens yielded 1.25% (v/w) pale yellow liquid essential oil of density 0.89 g/ml.[4] Isolation with 70% aqueous methanol extract of celery seed gave the polar constituents consisting of five sesquiterpenoid glucosides, two norcarotenoid glucosides, three phthalide glycosides, six aromatic compound glycosides, and a lignan glucoside.[3] A dichloromethane extract of celery root yielded polyacetylenes: falcarinol, falcaridiol, panaxydiol and 8-O-methylfalcarindiol.[5]

Traditional Use:

Celery is claimed to have sedative, carminative, hypotensive, antirheumatic and urinary antiseptic properties. Studies published in 1985 document the sedative and antispasmodic effects of the phthalide compounds present in the essential oil. The entire plant is used as a pot-herb and ingested to treat osteoarthritis, gout and urinary tract inflammation. The extract from the plant is used as a tonic for overcoming debilitated condition and is useful for addressing cystitis and related problems. This plant contributes in lowering hypertension and is also a reputed aphrodisiac. The stem or the stalk is given during confinement to stimulate lactation in mothers. In Ayurvedic medicine, this plant is used to treat asthma, bronchitis and hiccups. It is also used as a stimulating nerve tonic.[1] 

Its fruit or known commonly as celery seed has been used as a diuretic for bladder and kidney complaints, and as an adjuvant in arthritic and rheumatic conditions [3]. Celery seed tea has also been claimed to promote rest and sleep. The oil extracted from this plant is applied externally to treat tumours. The celery seed is a diuretic and believed to be capable of encouraging uric acid excretion, which is a useful treatment for gout. The oil is also used to treat arthritis and rheumatism.[1] Tests performed in 1998 confirmed its anti-inflammatory and pain-killing properties.[2]

Celery has also been used to treat coughs, bronchitis, asthma, muscle spasms, hiccups and bad breath. From a non-experimental validation conducted on plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus in Trinidad and Tobago, it was reported that celery can be used as a heart tonic.[6]

Pre-Clinical Data

Pharmacology

Larvacidal activity:

Among some aromatic plant volatile oils selected for investigating larvacidal potential against two mosquito vectors, Anopheles dirus (malaria) and Aedes aegypti (dengue), the essential oil of A. graveolens exerted a significant larvicidal activity against both mosquito species after 24-h exposure with LC50 42.[4] 

Antioxidant activity:

The effect of celery extracts of leaves and roots on protective antioxidant activity was assessed by in vitro and in vivo tests in mice treated with carbon tetrachloride. The results obtained show both the extracts are good scavengers of OH* and DPPH* radicals, probably due to the presence of flavonoids and other antioxidant compounds.[7] 

Hepatoprotective activity:

The hepatoprotective activity of methanol extract of seeds of A. graveolens against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in female rats has been investigated. The result shows that the activity is comparable to that of the standard drug silymarin.[8]

Toxicities

Cytotoxicity

From the evaluation of cytotoxicity of polyacetylenes: falcarinol, falcarindiol, panaxydiol and 8-O-methylfalcarindiol, against five different cell lines by the annexin V-PI assay, only falcarinol gave a pronounced toxicity against acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line CEM-C7H2, with an IC50 of 3.5µmol/L.[5]

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

Mild allergic reactions to anaphylactic reactions to celery have been documented following oral ingestion of celery stems. Celery allergy is reported to be mediated by IgE antibodies. However, the common antigen could not be determined.[9]

Adverse Effects in Human:

Celery is not advisable for people with acute renal disorder. Contact with celery stems could lead to photosensitivity due to the presence of furocoumarin constituents such as psoralen. It may sometimes induce allergic reactions.[2][9] 

Consuming large amounts of celery seed oil can induce CNS depression.[10]

Use in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

Ingestion of celery seeds by pregnant women is not recommended as the seeds may stimulate the uterus as they are reputed to affect the menstrual cycle and to be abortifacient.[2][9] Also, uterine stimulant activity has been documented for celery seed oil.[10]

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation

Geriatrics

No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

The potential for preparations of celery to interact with other medicines administered concurrently should be considered.[11]

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

Contraindications

Contraindications

Celery fruit contains phototoxic compounds, furocoumarins, which may cause photosensitive reactions.[9]

Case Reports

No documentation

Read More

  1) Botanical Info

  2) Essential Oil

  3) Western Herb

  4) Native American Herbs

References

  1. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur. Compendium of Medicinal Plants Used in Malaysia. 2002; 1:54.
  2. Wilkinson,J.,Dunford,A.,Binney,R.,Chadd,R.W.& McKenna,J. Nature’s Medicines. The Reader’s Digest Association Limited, London. 2003; pp 65.
  3. Kitajima,J., Ishikawa, T. & Satoh, M. Polar constituents of celery seed. Phytochemistry, 2003; 64 : 1003-1011.
  4. Pitasawat,B.,Champakaew,D.,Choochote,W.,Jitpakdi,A.,Chaithong,U.,Kanjanapothi,D.,Rattanachanpichai,E., ppawangkosol,P.,Riyong,D.,Tuetun,B. & Chaiyasit, D. Aromatic plant-derived essential: An alternative larvacide for mosquito control. Fitoterapia 2007; 78: 205-210.
  5. Zidorn,C.,Johrer,K.,Ganzera,M.,Schubert,B.,Sigmund,E.H.,Mader,J.,Greil,R., Ellmerer,E.P. & Stuppner,H. Polyacetylenes from the Apiaceae vegetables carrot, celery, fennel, parsley, and parsnip and their cytotoxic activities. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2005; 53(7): 2518-2523.
  6. Lans, C.A. Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus. J. Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2006; 2(45).
  7. Popovic,M., Kaurinovic,B.,Trivic,S., Mimica-Dukic,N. & Bursac,M. Effect of celery (Apium graveolens) extracts on some biochemical parameters of oxidative stress in mice treated with carbon tetrachloride. Phytother Res. 2006; 20(7):531-537
  8. Ahmad,B.,Alam,T.,Varshney,M. & Khan,S.A. Hepatoprotective activity of two plants to the Apiaceae and the Euphorbiaceae family. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002. 79:313-316.
  9. Globinmed http://www.globinmed.com/NHIContent/Royal.aspx/ accessed on 27 September 2007.
  10. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. http:// naturaldatabase.com/celery.html/ accessed on 12 October 2007.
  11. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions, 3rd ed. http://www.eclecticherb.com/emp/updatedHCDI.html accessed on 26 September 2007.