Tinospora tuberculata

Synonyms

Tinospora crispa Miers Contrib. Bot. iii. 34 (in Tayl. ano. ser. 2 VII 38). F.B.I., i. p. 96; For. Fl. Burma, i. p. 52; Fl. Indo-Chine, i. p. 132; Diels, Engler Pflanzenr., Meinsperm., p. 142; Tinospora rumphii Boerl., Cocculus crispus DC. Prodr. i 97, Hassk Pl. Jav. Rar. 166;  Cocculus coriaceus Bl. Bidj. 25; Cocculus verrucosus Wall. Cat. 4966 A. B.; Menispermum verrucosum Roxb., Fl. Ind. Iii 88, Menispermum crispum L. Sp. 1468, Meinspermum tuberculatum Lamk.

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia:

Akar Putarwali, Petawali, Patarwali, Batang Wali, Akar Seruntum, Gasing-gasing

English: 

 Gulbel, Indian Tinospora

Indonesia: 

Bratawali [1] , Putarwali, Antawali [2] , Daun gadel (Jawa); Andawali (Sunda); Kebut, Lalang (Madura); Halalang, Tingen (Kalimantan) [3] 

Thailand:  Boraphet, Wan kab hoi yai, Chingcha Chali, Chungcha ling tuama [4] 
Vietnam:  Day coc [5]
Philippines: 

Makabuhal (Tagalog, Bisaya, Ilako); Paliaban, Panauan, Panglauan, Panglauaban, Taga nagtagua (Bisaya); Sangaunau (Bag.)

China:  Shen Jin Teng
India: Giloy, Gulancha, Gulbel (Hindi) ; Ningthou khongli (Manipuri) ; Gulvel (Marathi) ; Kunali (Tamil) ; Manapala (Telugu) ; Madhuparni (Kannada) ; Nimgilo (Bengali) ; Amritvel (Konkani) ; Hoguni-lot (Assamese) ; Guruchi Sanskrit [6]

General Information

Description

Tinospora tuberculata is a climbing shrub of the Menispermaceae family. The young shoots are glabrous while the older ones are with warted barks. The leaves are membranous, glabrous, ovate-cordate, entire or repand, and sometime subsagittate. The length of the blade is 5-15 cm long, breath is 2.5-10 cm and the petiole measures 2.5-7.5 cm long. The racemes is 10-20 cm on the old wood, solitary or fascicled. There are 2 – 3 flowers in the axils of ovate bracts 3 mm long, campanulate and green. The stamens are adnate to the base of the petals and anthers are quadrate. The drupe are elliptic-oblong in shape, pale yellow in colour measuring 3.5 cm long or less. [7][8]

Plant Part Used

Dried stem [3]

Chemical Constituents

Berberine, Boraperoside A – F [9] (Furanoid diterpene glycoside), Columbine, Jatrorrhizine, Lysicamine, N-trans-Feruloyltyramine, N-acetylnornuciferine, N-acetylnornuciferin, N-cis-Feruloyltyramine, N-formylnornuciferine, N-Formylannonaine, N-formylnornuciferine Palmatine, Picroretine, Picroretoside [3], Rumphioside A - F (Clerodane diterpene glucosides) [10], Secoisolariciresinol, Syringin, Tembetrazine, Tinotufolin, Vanillin 

Traditional Used:

The plant has been advocated in the treatment of various forms of fever including those associated with jaundice or liver. As a febrifuge a decoction of the stem is prepared and given to the patient to drink. It is also used in the treatment of malaria. In India it is considered as a powerful febrifuge. [4][11][12][13] 

boiled dried stem is also used to treat rheumatism and to treat different inflammatory conditions like ophthalmia, syphilis, gonorrhea, small pox and venomous bites including snakebites. In various skin afflictions, a decoction of the stem is used as a wound cleanser and had been shown to effectively initiate healing of syphilitic ulcers, sores, smallpox and infected wounds. In some cases crushed leaves are used as poultice as an aid to wound healing. The same is used to ally pruritus. [3][11][12][13][14] 

The decoction of T. tuberculata is considered an emetic and at the same time an appetite stimulant based on the concentration of the decoction given. High doses acts as emetic while low doses can act as a bitter appetite stimulant. The same decoction is applied as a vermifuge. An infusion of the whole plant is used in the treatment of cholera. [14] 

Recently this plant has been promoted for the treatment diabetes and hypertension and is being sold in markets in Penang, Kuala Lumpur, Kota Kinabalu and Sandakan. Similar use has been documented in Brunei. [15] 

A lotion of the stem applied on the body acts as a vermifuge and prevents mosquitoes from biting. Necklace made of bits of the stem is supposed to cure jaundice by the Indians while the same is used to remove worms amongst the Malays. A little of the juice is applied to the nipples as an act of weaning of a child. [14] 

Pre-Clinical Data

Pharmacology


Anti-oxidant activity 

From the CH2Cl2 extract of Tinospora cripa (synonym of T.tuberculata), 3 compounds were found to exhibit antioxidant and radical scavenging activities towards b-carotene and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. These compounds are N-cis-feruloyltyramine, N-trans-feruloyltyramine and secoisolariciresinol. They prove to be more active than the synthetic antioxidant butylhydroxytoluene. [16] 

Cardiotonic activity 

Two triterpenes isolated from the stem of T. crispa i.e. cycloeucalenol and cycloeucalenone, showed mild cardiotonic effects. The former showed slight increase in the right atrial contraction force where it showed an initial reduction followed by sustained reduction of about 10% on the left atria of the rat in vitro. Cycloeucalenone on the other hand showed only slight change from the control of right and left atrial contraction force. [17]  In a preliminary screening of the chloroform extract of Tinospora crispa it was demonstrated that it has potent cardiovascular activity.  [18] 

Antimicrobial activity 

The aqueous extract of the stem of T. crispa showed significant inhibitory activity against adult worms of subperiodic Brugia malayi in vitro. [19] 

In a study to evaluate the efficacy of traditional remedies for malaria in the French Guiana it was confirmed that the one containing T. crispa was able to inhibit more than 50% of the parasitic growth in vivo. [20] In a study done in Thailand it was found that the crude extract of Tinospora crispa possesses antimalarial activity in a dose dependant manner against Plasmodium yoelii. [21] 

Three different extracts of T. crispa were tested for their antibacterial activities against the following bacteria Gram positive (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Stretococcus pneumoniae and Clostridium diphtheriae) and Gram negative (Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli) bacteria using the in vitro disc diffusion methods. The results showed that the aqueous extracts at all concentrations was active against S. pneumoniae and C. diphtheriae but show an activity against E. coli at the concentrations of 50% and above. The ethanol extract was active against S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, C. diphtheriae and S. flexneri at all concentrations while the chloroform extracts was able to inhibit the growth of E. coli at concentrations above 50%. [22] 

Anti-inflammatory activity 

Various extracts of T. crispus has shown inhibitory effects on inflammation induced by carragineen on rat’s foot pad. The most effective extract was the n-butanol soluble fraction given orally. Similar effects were also illicited when the extract was give subcutaneously and intraperitoneally. When given intravenously it also reduced LPS-induced fever in rabbits. [23] 

Antidiabetic activity 

The decoction of the stem of T. cripa has been used to treat diabetes by various communities in South east Asia. A series of studies had been done by various researchers on the hypoglycaemic properties of this plants. 

The first study demonstrated that water extracts of the stem of T. crispa indeed has hypoglycaemic properties by stimulating the release of insulin from the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans. [24] [25] 

They continued further the illicit the probable mechanism T. crispa extract’s insulinotropic activity. They found that the extract sensitizes the b-cel to extracellular Ca2+ and promotes intracellular Ca2+ accumulation which in turns causes increased insulin release. This increase of intracellular Ca2+ is due to stimulation of Ca2+ uptake from extracellular medicu and inhibition of Ca2+ efflux from the cytosol. This physiological effect suggests that the extract contains an insulin scretagogues with potential of being developed into an oral hypoglycaemic agent for treatment of Type 2 Diabetes.  [26] 

Further research was done to seek other pharmacological characterization of the antihyperglycaemic properties of T. cripa extract. The result showed that the hypoglycaemic effects was not due to its interference in intestinal glucose absorption or uptake of sugar into peripheral cells. [26] 

A recent research done to further understand the effects of aqueous extracts of T. crispa on glucose transport activity in skeletal muscle. In this research it was found that the extract enhances glucose transport of L6 myotubes in an insulin-independent pathway in a time and dose dependent manner. [27] 

Toxicities

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

A controlled clinical trial on the efficacy of powdered encapsulated T. crispa was done. Twenty diabetic who were resistant to modern therapy were recruited and given the 1g capsule of powdered T. crispa for a total of six months. The results did not show any improvement in their diabetic status. However, two developed marked rise in liver enzymes which returned to normal upon withdrawal of the treatment. Patients on T. crispa capsules also showed weight reduction and elevated cholesterol levels. It was concluded that capsules of powdered T. crispa in a dose of 3g per day did not help in improving diabetes. [28]

Adverse Effects in Human:

The plant may result in an increase risk of hepatic dysfunction due to marked increase in liver enzymes as evidenced amongst patients in one clinical trial to test its efficacy as an adjuvant to diabetic therapy. This is however reversible upon discontinuation of the drug. [29]

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation

Geriatrics

No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

Contraindications

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

References

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  2. P. Sarwono. Kamus peribahasa Gramedia. Jakarta: Pustaka Utama; 2007.281.
  3. D. Setiawan. Atlas tumbuhan obat Indonesia. Jakarta: Pustaka Bunda; 2008.10–12.
  4. L.G. David, Ninian. Smart Religion and ecology in India and Southeast Asia. London: Routledge; 2001.
  5. N.P. Julie, T. Hop, T. Hung, A.P. Tuyet, D. Christiane, F. Jeremy, H.T. Tinh, C. Philippe, B. Bernard, G. Philippe. Antimalarial and cytotoxic activities of ethnopharmacologically selected medicinal plants from South Vietnam. Journal of Ethnopharmacology.2007.109.417–427.
  6. Flowers of India. Available from: http://www.flowersofindia.net/catalog/slides/Gulbel.html . [Accessed on 26th October 09].
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  8. J.D. Hooker The Flora of British India Vol. 1. London: L. Reeve & Co.; 1875.96 – 97.
  9. J. Buckingham. Dictionary of Natural Products, Supplement 1. London: Chapmann & Hall; 1995. 153, 163, 164, 193.
  10. S.M. Teresita, O. Kazuhiro, K. Ryoji and Y. Kazuo. Clerodane diterpene glucosides from Tinospora rumphii. Phytochemistry. December1995.40(6): 1729-1736.
  11. J. Timothy. CRC ethnobotany desk reference. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1999.838.
  12. J.D. Oei. Terapi MATA dengan pijat dan ramuan. Jakarta: Niaga Swadaya; 2006.29.
  13. V. Rashtra. Floristic Plants of the World. New Delhi: Sarup & Sons; 2006.869.
  14. I.H. Burkill. A Dictionary of Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula Vol 2. Kuala Lumpur: Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperative; 1966. 2204 – 2205.
  15. S. Joseph, M. Sugumaran, L.W.L. Kate. Herbs of Malaysia: An Introduction to the medicinal, culinary, aromatic and cosmetic use of herbs. Kuala Lumpur: Federal Publications Sdn. Bhd. ;2005.219.
  16. A. Cavin, K. Hostettmann, W. Dyatmyko, O Potterat. Antioxidant and lipophilic constituents of Tinospora crispa. Planta medica 1998. 64.393-396. 
  17. K.P.D. Ngampong, K. Boonsong, C. Khanittha, S. Prapasri and H. Som. Study on cardiac contractility of cycloeucalenol and cycloeucalenone isolated from Tinospora crispa. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. November2002.83(1-2):95-99.
  18. N.A. Bakhari, A. Sadikun, T.S. Choon, T.S. Ying, and M.Z. Asmawi. Aporphine Alkaloids Isolated from the Cardiovascular Active Fraction of Tinospora crispa. Malaysian Journal of Science.2005: 24 (1);161-165.
  19. M. Z. Zaridah Corresponding Author Contact Information, a, S. Z. Ididb, A. Wan Omarc and S. Khoziraha. In vitro antifilarial effects of three plant species against adult worms of subperiodic Brugia malayi. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. November2001.78(1):79-84.
  20. S. Bertania, G. Bourdyb, I. Landaua, J.C. Robinsonc, Ph. Esterred and E. Deharob Evaluation of French Guiana traditional antimalarial remedies. Journal of Ethnopharmacology April2005. 98(1-2):45-54.
  21. T. Rungruang, T. Boonmars. In vivo antiparasitic activity of the Thai traditional medicine plant--Tinospora crispa—against Plasmodium yoelii. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. Sep 2009;40(5):898-900.
  22. Z.A. Zakaria ; A.M. Mat Jais ; E.F.P. Henie ; H. Zaiton ; M.N. Somchit ; M.R. Sulaiman ; F.O. Faizal The in vitro Antibacterial Activity of Tinosprora crispa. Extracts Journal of Biological Sciences. 2006. 6(2):398-401.
  23. H. Higashino, A. Suzuki, Y. Tanaka, K. Pootakham. Inhibitory effects of Siamese Tinospora crispa extracts on the carrageenin-induced foot pad edema in rats (the 1st report)]. Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi.Oct1992;100(4):339-344.
  24. H. Noor, P. Hammonds, R. Sutton and S.J.H. Ashcroft. The hypoglycaemic and insulinotropic activity of Tinospora crispa: studies with human and rat islet and HIT-T15 B cells. Diabetologia.1989; 32:354 – 359.
  25. H. Noor, S.J. Ashcroft. Antidiabetic effects of Tinospora crispa in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. Nov1989;27(1-2):149-161.
  26. H. Noor, S.J. Ashcroft. Pharmacological characterisation of the antihyperglycaemic properties of Tinospora crispa extract. J Ethnopharmacol. Aug1998;62(1):7-13.
  27. N. Kusumarn, P. Juntipa, H. Angkana, R. Suvina. In vitro glucose uptake activity of Tinospora crispa in skeletal muscle cells. Asian Biomedicine.October 2008; 2(5): 415 – 420.
  28. C. Sangsuwan, S. Udompanthurak, S. Vannasaeng, V. Thamlikitkul. Randomized controlled trial of Tinospora crispa for additional therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Med Assoc Thai. May2004;87(5):543-546.
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