Euphorbia antiquorum L.

Synonyms

No documentation

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia: Sesudu, Sudu-sudu
English:  Malayan Spurge Tree, Triangular Spruge
China: Huo Yu Jin
Indonesia:  Sesuru
Thailand: 

Khia Liam, Ngon Ngu (Mae Hong Son); Khia Pha (Northern); Kalam Phak (Nakhon Ratchasima); Salat Dai Pa (Central); Thu-du-ke-la (Karen-Mae Hong Son)

India:  Tidhara (Hindi); Mudumula, Katakkali (Kannada); Caturakkalli (Malayalam); Vajrakantakah, Tridhara (Sanskrit); Saturakkalli, Tiruvargalli (Tamil); Bommajemudu, Bonta Kalli, Pedda Jemudu (Telagu)
Arabic:  Zekooom [2]

General Information

Description

Euphorbia antiquorum is a member of the Euphorbiaceae family. It is a succulent plant which is usually leafless and can reach a height of up to 8m with a stem diametre of 22cm. The older stems are terete, with brownish bark while younger branches are smooth, green and distinctly angled, distinctly articulate with the segments 6-30 x 2-5cm, drying greenish with shallow to hardly narrowed sinuses between the spine shields. Spine-sheilds in rows, shallow, 1.5-2cm apart, spines in pairs 4-6mm long, blackish and persistent. Stipules are transformed into spines. Leaves when present are alternate, caducous. Cyathia are axillary, yellow, solitary or in dichasia of 3, less than 2cm long; basal peduncle is 4-6mm long; bracts of branching 2mm long; peduncle of individual cyathia is 1mm (Ssaminate) or 4-6mm (bisexual cyathia) long; involucral bracts are 1.5-2mm long; cyathia are sessile in involucre; gkands 5, transversely elliptic, 1 x 2.5-3mm, without appendages, interspersed with erect smaller lobes; pistillate flowers nearly sessile in involucre. Fruits are yellow-orange on a pedicel which is 1-3mm long; schizocarp is 4-4.5 x 6.5-7mm deeply sulcate and sharply keeled. Seeds are 1.5-2mm, pale to grey brown, ecarnuculate. [1]

Plant Part Used

Roots and juice

Chemical Constituents

eupha-7,9(11),24-trien-3beta-ol (antiquol C), 19(10-->9)abeo-8alpha,9beta,10alpha-eupha-5,24-dien-3beta-ol (antiquol B), and 24-methyltirucalla-8,24(24(1))-dien-3beta-ol (euphorbol); euphol, lemmaphylla-7,21-dien-3beta-ol, isohelianol, and camelliol C, antiquorine A, antiquorine B, ent-13S-hydroxy-16-atisene-3,14-dione, taraxerol, 3beta-hydroxy-25,26,27-trisnorcycloart-24-oic acid, 9beta,19-cyclolanostan-3beta-ol and psi-taraxastane-3,20-diol, euphol 3-O-cinnamate, antiquol A and antiquol B, euphol, 24-methylenecycloartanol and cycloeucalenol, (Z)-9-Nonacosene, sitosterol and p-acetoxyphenol, friedelan-3β-ol and β-taraxerol, friedelan-3-alpha-ol and 3 beta-ol, taraxerol and taraxerone, beta-amrin, cycloartenol, alpha-euphorbol

Traditional Use:

The roots of Euphorbia antiquorum is considered bitter, acrid, thermogenis, anodyne, purgative, emetic, stomachic and digestive while the juice is acrid, anti-inflammatory, deobstruant and purgative. [1] 

Latex of Euphorbia antiquorum is considered a drastic cathartic and is used to treat obstinate visceral obstruction in very small doses. [2] The roots are also considered as purgative apart from being a stomachic, a digestive and an emetic. [3]  It is being used to treat flatulance, colic, constipation and dyspepsia in India. The roots is also used to treat worm infestations. [4]

The dried hardwood is considered an antipyretic and is used to treat fever in Thailand.

The latex is generally believed to be able to treat warts (verruca vulgaris) and it used widely in South-east Asia to rid off these disfiguring lesions where they appeared effectively.

In India the the plant is boiled with gingilie oil and used as an external application for rheumatic affections. The same is used to deaden the pains of toothache and is applied locally to the affected tooth. Decoction of the stem is used in the treatment of gout. [2][4]

Other uses of the plant includes treatment of otalgia and deafness; dropsy and anasarca; sores including venereal sores and scabies; cough, bronchitis and asthma and also tuberculosis.[1][2][3][4]

Pre-Clinical Data

Pharmacology


Cytotoxic activity:

A total of seven compound isolated from the latex of Euphorbia antiquorum (antiquol B and C, Euphorbol, euphol, lemmaphylla-7,21-dien-3b-ol, isohelianol and camelliol) showed potent inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation by the tumour promoter 12-O-tetradecanolyphorbol-13-acetate(TPA). [5] 

In another study the extract of Euphorbia antiquorum showed significant S phase arrest in HeLa and Ca Ski cells. [6] 

Euphorbia antiquorum (EA-1) significant S phase arrest in HeLa and Ca Ski cells. The comet assay confirmed that EA-1 could lead DNA fragment outflow form HeLa cell. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were increased after cells treated with EA-1. Cyclosporine A and Allopurinol could decreased the levels of EA-1-induced ROS. Form western blotting analysis, EA-1 could decrease cyclin dependent kinases Cdk2 and cyclin B1, cyclin E and cyclin A.  EA-1 increased the cyclin- dependent kinase inhibitors p21wafl/cipl P27Kip. EA-1 could increase the ATM, CHK2 and decrease Cdc25A, Cdc25C, Bcl-2 and ERK-P levels. EA-1 increased the JNK-P and P38-P levels. EA-1 also increased Bid and Bax pathway and increase cleaved-caspase 8, cleaved-caspase 9, cleaved-caspase 3 and cytochrome C protein levels. Furthermore. EA-1-mediated caspase activation was blocked by SP600125 but lethality was not diminished by SB203580. In conclusion, we suggest ATM induced DNA injury might as the major possible mechanisms of EA-1-induced S phase cell cycle arrest and caspases activation might as the major possible mechanisms of EA-1-induced apoptosis in human cervical cancer Hela cell lines.

Toxicities

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Use in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation

Geriatrics

No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

Contraindications

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

References

  1. P. K. Warrier, P.K. Et Al. Indian Medicinal Plants: A Compendium Of 500 Species, Volume 2 Orient Longman Hyderabad 1994 pg. 388.
  2. Sir Whitelaw Ainslie Materia medica of Hindoostan, and artisan's and agriculturist's nomenclature Government of Madras Madras 1813 pg. 14.
  3. P. K. Warrier, P.K. Et Al. Indian Medicinal Plants: A Compendium Of 500 Species, Volume 2 Orient Longman Hyderabad 1994 pg. 388.
  4. C. P. Khare Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary Springer Verlag Berlin 2007 pg 250.
  5. Akihisa T, Kithsiri Wijeratne EM, Tokuda H, Enjo F, Toriumi M, Kimura Y, Koike K, Nikaido T, Tezuka Y, Nishino H. Eupha-7,9(11),24-trien-3beta-ol ("antiquol C") and other triterpenes from Euphorbia antiquorum latex and their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus activation. J Nat Prod. 2002 Feb;65(2):158-62.
  6. Wen-Tsong Hsieh  Jou-Hsuan Chen  Jih-Sheng Hsu  Jing-Gung Chung. The Molecular Mechanism of EA-1 inhibited growth in Human cervical cancer HeLa cell (http://cpfd.cnki.com.cn/Article/CPFDTOTAL-ZGYS200607001K05.htm) [Accessed on: 28th January 2010]