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Sterculia macrophylla Vent.

Sterculia macrophylla Vent.

Family

Sterculiaceae

Synonyms

Sterculia oncinocarpa F. v. Mueller & Forbes, Sterculia parkinsonii F. v. Mueller, Sterculia pachyclados K. Schumann, Sterculia crassiramea Merr.

Vernacular Names

Malaysia Kelumpang (Peninsular), kalumpang, tangkoranjoh (Sabah), pelajau (Sarawak).
Indonesia

Kelumpang (Riau Archipelago), kelumpang labi (Sumatra), hantap heulang (Sundanese, Java).

Thailand Kletraet (Kanchanaburi).
Philippines Tapinag, tapinag-laparan (Tagalog), balinad (Bisaya).

Geographical Distributions

Sterculia macrophylla is distributed in Southern Thailand, throughout Malesia, except for the Lesser Sunda Islands, to New Britain and the Solomon Islands.

Description

Sterculia macrophylla is a medium-sized to fairly large deciduous tree which can reach up to 40 m tall, with bole measuring up to 65(-150) cm in diametre, with large buttresses, measuring up to 3 m high and 3 m wide, with smooth bark surface but fissured in square section  and slightly scaly or hoop-marked. It is greyish-white to greyish-brown with whitish spots. The inner bark is fibrous, pale pinkish-brown or yellowish-brown, mottled and with stout twigs measuring about 17-18 mm in diametre.

The leaves are simple and entire, ovate or broadly elliptical to nearly orbicular, measuring (8-)12-40 cm x (6-)10-35 cm, mostly deeply cordate at the base and brownish or yellowish star-shaped hairy below. The petiole is (2-)4-20 cm long, with ovate or lance-shaped stipules and caducous.

The inflorescence is axillary or subterminal, resembling a panicle, many-flowered and erect. The sepal is with obconical or bell-shaped tube, which is densely pubescent inside and 5 triangular or ligulate and with erect or recurved lobes that are shorter than or about as long as the tube. The male flowers are with 5-10 anthers. There are (1-)3-5 velvety brown follicles which are suborbicular, measuring 3-8 cm long and bright red or reddish-orange. The black seed is ellipsoid or oblong and measuring 1-2.3 cm long.

Ecology / Cultivation

Sterculia macrophylla is common in primary and   secondary forests, often in mixed dipterocarp forests, sometimes in swamp forests, in loamy and clayey soils but also on limestone rocks, up to 900 m altitude. The wood is whitish to pale pink. The density is (120-)250-450 kg/m3 at 15% moisture content.

Line Drawing / Photograph

Sterculia_macrophylla

References

  1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 5(2): Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers.

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