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Cissampelos pareira L.

 

Cissampelos pareira L.

Family

Menispermaceae

Synonyms

None

Vernacular Names

Indonesia Mangaloke (Moluccas).
Philippines Sansau (Tagalog), sampare (Bisaya), kalaad (Iloko).
Thailand Khong khamao (Northern), khruea ma noi (Eastern), krung khamao (Peninsular).
Vietnam D[aa]y m[oos]i, m[oos]i tr[of]n, ti[ees]t d[ee].

Geographical Distributions

Cissampelos pareira var. hirsuta (Buch.-Ham. ex DC.) Forman occurs in Malesia. In Asia, it is found from Nepal and India, through Burma (Myanmar), Indo-China, southern China, Thailand and Malesia (but is not known from Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Java), to Australia (Queensland).

Description

C. pareira is a dioecious scandent shrub with woody older stems and slender leafy stems, which is smooth to densely pubescent.

The leaves are arranged spirally, simple and entire, broadly ovate, measuring 4.5-11 cm  x  4.5-12 cm, with rounded, truncate or cordate at the base and acuminate to obtuse at the apex, mucronate at the tip, hairy below, sparsely pubescent above and palmately 5-7-veined. The pubescent petiole is 2-9 cm long. The stipules are absent.

The male inflorescence is an axillary subcorymbose peduncled cyme, measures 2-4 cm long and solitary or a few together while the female inflorescence is an axillary, thyrsoid, narrow, measures up to 18 cm long and composed of a pseudoraceme of fascicles with accrescent suborbicular bracts. The flowers are unisexual while the pedicel measures up to 2 mm long. The male flower is greenish or yellowish with 4 hairy sepals outside, a cupule-shaped petal and completely fused stamens and with 4 anther-cells. The female flower is with one sepal, one petal and one hairy carpel which having a thick style with divaricately 3-lobed stigma.

The fruit is a pubescent, orange to red drupe, measures about 5 mm long and curved with style-scar near the base. The endocarp is with 2 dorsal rows of very prominent transverse ridges.

The seed is horseshoe-shaped. The embryo is elongate, narrow and embedded in endosperm while the cotyledons are flattened.

Ecology / Cultivation

C. pareira occurs in primary and secondary forests, in bamboo forests in Thailand, and also in thickets, up to 1300 m altitude. It climbs over trees and river banks.

Line Drawing / Photograph

Cissampelos_pareira

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  1) Safety

References

  1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12(1): Medicinal and poisonous plants 1.

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