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Anethum graveolens L.

 

Anethum graveolens L.

Family

Umbelliferae

Synonyms

Anethum sowa Roxb. ex Fleming, Peucedanum graveolens (L.) Hiern, Peucedanum sowa (Roxb. ex Fleming) Kurz.

Vernacular Names

Malaysia Adas china, adas pudus, ender.
English Dill.
Indonesia Adas man­is, adas sowa, ender.
Myanmar Samin.
Laos Phak s'i:.
Thailand Thian-khaopluak, thian­-tatakkataen (central), phakchi lao (eastern).
Viet­nam

Thi[af] l[af].

French Aneth, aneth odorant, fenouil puant.

Geographical Distributions

The ori­gin of Anethum graveolens is unknown; it is thought to be native to the Mediterranean and to South and south­western Asia. Now, it is usually cultivated in home gardens all over the world, including Southeast Asia. Sometimes, it escapes from cultivation and naturalises.

Description

Anethum graveolens is an erect, annual, blue-green, hairless herb, which can reach up to 1.5 m tall, and up to 12 mm in taproot diametre where all parts are strong-smelling (herba­ceous) especially after crushing. The stem is subterete, up to 12 mm in diametre, very branched, sulcate and often with hollow internodes.

The leaves are arranged alternate, decom­pound and sheathed. The sheath forms an open cone, embracing the stem at base, measures 1-3(-5) cm long and grooved. The petiole is subterete, equally long or up to 13 cm longer than the sheath. The lower leaves are usually with rather long petiolate while the higher ones are almost without petiole. The blade is triangular to ovate in outline, measures up to 30 cm x 50 cm, usually much smaller, pinnately divided into 2-6 pairs or whorls of primary pinnae and one top pinna. Each pinna is pinnately di­vided 2-4 times into linear or slender segments.

The inflorescence is a compound umbel 4-16 cm in diametre. The peduncle is up to 30 cm long. The bracts and bracteoles are usually absent. There are about 5-35 prima­ry rays per umbel, measuring 1-10 cm long, and unequal in length but with the longest ones outside of the umbel. There are 3-35 secondary rays per umbellet which are 1-15 mm long.

The flowers are bisexual, actinomorphic, with some central ones often remain rudimentary, protandrous (usually the styles and stigmas become fully de­veloped after shedding of the corolla and sta­mens). The sepal is vestigial and sometimes with 5 small teeth present on top of the ovary. There are 5 petals, distinct, subo­vate in outline, measure up to 1.5 mm x 1 mm, strongly inflexed and notched at the top and yellow. There are 5 stamens, with filaments about 1.5 mm long and yellow. The pistil is with inferior, bilocular ovary and a fleshy fruit.

The fruit is a lens-shaped schizocarp, measures 2.5-6 mm x 2-4 mm, light or dark brown with a whitish to pale brown margin, and splitting at maturity into 2 one-­seeded mericarps which are attached at their top to an erect thin carpophore. The mericarp is flat, usually with 3 longitudinal prominent ridges and 2 flat and wing-like commissural ridges. On the commissural side, it is usually with 2 dark brown longitudinal vitta, while on the dorsal side, there is one vitta between each 2 ridges. The fruits are crowned with persistent sty­lopodium and styles.

The seed is with testa adnate to the mericarp while seedling is with epigeal germination. The hypocotyl is 5-25 mm long. The cotyledons are opposite, lin­ear, measuring 15-50 mm x 1-2 mm and entire.

Ecology / Cultivation

Anethum graveolens is primarily a summer crop of tem­perate climates. It is generally considered a long-day plant in terms of flower initiation, with a criti­cal period of 11-14 hours. Some reports, however, indicate that A. graveolens is probably day-neutral, that long-day conditions merely enhancing anthesis. In the trop­ics, it can successfully be grown up to altitudes of 2000 m. The annual rainfall or water requirement (irrigation) ranges from 500-1700 mm. It does not tolerate wet conditions or frost and thrives in full light at average monthly temperatures of 16-18°C. Minimum temperature for growth is about 7°C. It prefers a sandy loam soil with pH 5.6-6.5.

Line Drawing / Photograph

Anethum_graveolens_2

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   1) Essential Oil

 

References

    1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No.13: Spices.

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