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Artocarpus elasticus Reinw. Ex Blume

Artocarpus elasticus Reinw. Ex Blume

Family

Moraceae

Synonyms

Artocarpus blumei Trécul, Artocarpus kunstleri King.

Vernacular Names

Malaysia Te­rap nasi (Peninsular), terap (Sarawak), terap to­gop (Sabah).
English

Wild breadfruit.

Bru­nei Danging, tebagan, terap hutan.
Indonesia

Benda (Javanese, Sundanese), teureup (Sunda­nese), terap (Sumatra,Kalimantan).

Thailand

Oh, ka oh, tuka (Peninsu­lar).

Geographical Distributions

Artocarpus elas­ticus is native to Burma (Myanmar), Thailand, Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia (Irian Jaya excluded) and the Philippines (Palawan). It is also cultivat­ed, for instance in Malaysia and Indonesia (Java, Kalimantan).

Description

Artocarpus elasticus is an evergreen, monoecious tree that can reach up to 45(-65) m tall. Its bole is branchless up to 30 m, up to 1.2(-2) m in diametre and with buttresses up to 3 m high. The outer bark is dark grey, smooth to slightly scaly, while upon wounding, it exudes a white and thick la­tex. The inner bark (bast) is yellowish to pale brown. The sapwood is yellowish-white. The twigs are 1-2 cm in diame­tre, bearing ring-like stipular scars and short hispid.

The leaves are arranged spirally, stiffly leathery, 2-3-times pinnatifid in juve­nile trees and up to 2 m long, while in adult trees the leaves are simple. The stipules are amplexicaul, lance-shaped, measure 6-20 cm long, and hispid-pubescent with yellow to red-brown hairs.

The petiole is 4-10 cm long. The blade is ovate to elliptical, measuring 15-60 cm x 10-35 cm, with rounded or wedge-shaped base, entire or shallowly crenate margin and acuminate apex. The midrib is raised above, with 12-14 pairs of lateral veins which are flat and distinct above but prominently raised below. The upper surface is ap­pressed-hispid while the lower surface is bullate and ­pubescent-hispid.

The inflorescence is unisexual, capitate, soli­tary and axillary. The numerous flowers are densely packed together and embedded in the receptacle. The peri­anths enclose a single stamen or ovary, usually mixed with abundant, stalked and interfloral bracts. The male head on peduncle is 4-7.5 cm long, cylindrical, measuring 6-15(-20) cm x 1.5-2.5 cm, with distinct deep grooves and yellow. The perianth is tubular, 0.8 mm long, bilobed at apex and appressed-pubescent. The stamens are up to 0.9 mm long. The female head is with bifid styles and exserted to 1 mm.

The fruit is a syncarp on a peduncle 7-12 cm long, cylindrical, and measures up to 17 cm x 10 cm, yellow-brown, covered with closely set hairs, fleshy and whitish. The short hispid processes ('spines') are of 2 lengths where the longer ones are zigzag and solid, measuring 10-18 mm x 1-1.5 mm while the shorter ones are narrowly conical, perforate and measuring 4 mm x 1 mm. The interfloral bracts are scat­tered between the processes, slenderly stalked and funnel-shaped at the upper parts. There are numerous fruiting peri­anths. The seed (the thin, horny pericarp) is ellipsoidal and measure 10 mm x 6 mm. Seedling is with hypogeal germination.

Ecology / Cultivation

Artocarpus elasticus is found in evergreen and semi-deciduous forests, both primary and secondary, up to 1500 m altitude.

Line Drawing / Photograph

a.elasticus

References

  1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No.17: Fibre plants.

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