Daucus carota

 

Daucus carota

In regards to the Traditional Use and Therapeutic Action sections of Essential Oils, the oils are rated as is standard practice in the French school of aromatherapy and others. The ratings ranked from one (+) to four (++++) with four indicating the highest value, indicate the oil’s therapeutic value from a practicing clinician’s point of view. The French rating system mentioned are obtained from this book reference entitle ‘Les Cahiers Pratiques D'Aromatherapie Selon L'Ecole Francaise’ (Authors: Francine Baudry, Pascal Debauche & Dominique Baudoux). However, further clarification might be required and will be updated once additional information of the rating system is obtained.

Family Name

Apiaceae

Genus Name

Daucus 

Vernacular Name

Queen anne’s lace, carrot seed oil, wild carrot.

Original Habitat

D. carota is the wild plant from which the cultivated carrot was developed. It is found in North Africa, Southwest Asia, Europe and North America, though not in Canada. This plant is often referred to as an invasive species. It should be noted that occasionally Poison Hemlock in early growth stages is confused with D. carota due to some similarities. However, D. carota has hairy stems and leaves and has a carrot-like scent which is not true of Poison Hemlock. Carrot seed oil is used throughout the world in food and cosmetic products.[1] The essential oil is produced in France and Hungary.[2]

Plant Part Used

Seed

Formulation

D. carota oil is used in highly spiced sauces and foods. It is used in perfumes that originate in Asia. It is also used in formulations in therapeutic aromatherapy. 

Description

The thin oil is obtained by steam distillation of the seeds, expression or solvent distraction and is a pale yellow to amber or orange-brown colour.[2] It should not be confused with oil made from macerated carrot root. It has a woody, dry aroma with fresh notes.

Chemical Constituents

Sesquiterpenes: Beta bisabolene (8-10%)
Sesquiterpenic alcohols: Carotol  (70%)
Alcohol oxides: Daucol (5%) [3][4][5][6]

The sesquiterpene content differs from cultivated to wild harvested D. carota with the cultivated herb containing higher amounts.[4]

Medicinal Uses

Hepatic renal depurative ++
Hepatic cell regenerator +++

Clinical and pre-clinical studies on the hepatoprotective effects of D. carota have been conducted using an ethanol extract rather than the steam distilled essential oil. There are, however, animal studies on the sesquiterpene, beta bisbolene, in regard to having potential hepatoprotective properties.

 Antibacterial- D. carota was examined along with 95 other essential oils for their antibacterial properties against Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica. D. carota essential oil showed strong antibacterial effects against C. jejuni.[7] This oil also showed that when exposed to UV, the antibacterial activity increased against certain pathogens.[8] An additional study tested the antibacterial properties of this oil against C. jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter lari strains, including one multidrug resistant C. jejuni. All strains tested were effective. The molecules identified as responsible for this activity were identified as identified as (E)-methylisoeugenol and elemicin.[9]

Antifungal– D. carota was evaluated for its antifungal activity against yeasts, dermatophyte and Aspergillus strains. While the various oils used demonstrated different levels of antifungal activity, the researchers noted that the oils containing higher amounts of elemicin showed the strongest activity.[10]

Traditional Use

Hepatic deficiency, staphylococcal hepatic abscess, cirrhosis +++
Slight renal deficiency, nephritis, nephrosis
Eczema, scurf, boils, blotchiness ++

As noted previously, published literature does not provide laboratory or clinical support for these indications. However, the use of D. carota essential oil for hepatic support, renal support and for skin health is widespread among aromatherapists and essential oil practitioners.

Contraindications and Precautions

None for prescribed doses. [11]

 

 

Keep out of reach of children as oils are highly concentrated.Essential oils are irritating to the eyes.  Avoid contact with eye area.Always dilute essential oils with carrier oil, lotion, cream or gel even when using in diffuser or bath.Essential oils are sometimes prescribed to be used internally, but should only be used internally under professional supervision.

Read More

  1) Botanical Info

References

  1. Staniszewska M, et al. Essential oils of wild and cultivated carrots - the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity. J Essen Oil Res. Sep2005;17(5);579-583.
  2. Lis-Balchin M. Aromatherapy science. Great Britain: Pharmaceutical Press; 2006.
  3. Jasicka MI. Antifungal activity of the carrot seed oil and its major sesquiterpene compounds. Z Naturforsch [C]. Nov-Dec2004;59(11-12):791-796.
  4. Mockute D, Nivinskiene O. Sabinene chemotype of essential oil of seeds of Daucus carota L. ssp. carota growing wild in lithuania. The Journal of Essential Oil Research: JEOR; Jul/Aug.
  5. Kula J, Izydorczyk K, Czajkowska A, Bonikowski R. Chemical composition of carrot umbel oils from Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus cultivated in Poland. Flavour and Fragrance Journal. 21(4):667-669.
  6. Bauer K, Garbe D, Surburg H. Common Fragrance and Flavor Materials. Germany: Wiley-VCH; 1997.
  7. Friedman M. Bactericidal activities of plant essential oils and some of their isolated constituents against Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica. J Food Prot. Oct2002;65(10):1545-1560.
  8. Gupta R, et al. In vitro antibacterial potential assessment of Carrot (Daucus carota) and Celery (Apium graveolens) seed essential oils against twenty one Bacteria. J Essen Oil Bearing Plants. Apr2003;(7)1:79-86.
  9. Luciani A, Panighi J, Desjobert JM, Costa J. (E)-methylisoeugenol and elemicin: antibacterial components of Daucus carota L. essential oil against Campylobacter jejuni. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2007;55(18):7332.
  10. Tavares AC, Gonçalves MJ, Cavaleiro C, Cruz MT, Lopes MC, Canhoto J, Salgueiro LR. Essential oil of Daucus carota subsp. halophilus: composition, antifungal activity and cytotoxicity. J Ethnopharmacol. 2 Sep2008;119(1):129-134.
  11. Tisserand R. Essential oil safety: a guide for health care professionals. Scotland: Churchill Livingston; 1995.