Tabebuia impetiginosa

 

Tabebuia impetiginosa

Synonyms

No documentation

Vernacular Name

Pau d’arco, lapacho, purple lapacho, trumpet bush and taheebo.

Description

Tabebuia impetiginosa has an ancient history of use in South and Central America as a medicinal and spiritual herb.  It was used regularly by the Incas, Aztecs and other natives of the South American rainforest.  In addition to its use as a medicinal plant, T. impetiginosa was used to make tools.

T. impetiginosa is a medium-sized, deciduous tree of the family Bignoniaceae.  The thinly barked trunk of T. impetiginosa can reach 20m in height in the wild, roughly two-thirds of the height of the entire tree.  The bark is dark brown or grey and very durable.  The crown of the tree grows to be broad, often reaching up to 15m across.  T. impetiginosa is briefly deciduous, as the small, dark, oval, palmately compound leaves exist on the tree for only a short time.  The defining characteristic of T. impetiginosa is perhaps its large crown of brilliant, pink flowers, which bloom in spring.  Each flower is trumpet-shaped, magenta in color, roughly 3cm-5cm across, and appears in spring, soon before the leaves.  The flowers appear in dense bunches along the end of each branch.  The fruit of T. impetiginosa is drupe, slender seed pods, which remain on the tree year round.  Each seed pod is on average 10cm in length, brown in color and contains small, winged seeds.

Origin / Habitat

T. impetiginosa is native to Central and South America and can be grown in habitats such as Florida as long as the conditions are similar to those in its native habitat.

Chemical Constituents

Quinone compounds, including lapachol, beta-lapachone, xyloidone (naphthoquinones) and tabebuin (anthroquinone), flavonoids including quercetin; glycosides including Iridoid, lignan, isocoumarin, phenylthanoid, phenolic; cyclopentene dialdehydes. [1],[2],[3]

Plant Part Used

Inner Bark

Medicinal Uses

General

Cancer therapy
Antifungal/antibacterial
Antioxidant
Gastric ulcers

 

Most Frequently Reported Uses 

Cancer therapy
Antifungal/antibacterial

Dosage

Dosage Range  

Tea: use powdered bark, 5g (1 teaspoonful) in 120mL(one-cup) hot water; steep for 10 minutes and drink 2-8 times daily.

Most Common Dosage

Powdered extract (4:1 w/v): 500mg daily of a standardized extract  

Standardization Dosage 

Standardized to 3% naphthoquinones.

Pharmacology

Pre-clinical

Extracts of T. impetiginosa have been reported in laboratory studies to exhibit anti-proliferative effects in cancer cells, including estrogen receptor positive human breast, prostate, lung bladder, colon and liver cancer cells lines.[4],[5],[6],[7],[8] The mechanisms involves induction of cancer cell apoptosis through inactivation of NF-kappaB, inhibition of pRB phosphorylation, induction of p21, activation of caspase-3 and inhibition of tolemerase activity.[9],[10] Also, extracts are reported to have enhanced macrophage activity against tumor cells. [11]

To support traditional uses of T. impetiginosa for treatment of gastric ulcers, a laboratory animal study found that an extract of T. impetiginosa bark protected the animals from gastric lesions and reduced gastric acidity (through antisecretory activity in gastric mucosa), which was further confirmed by enhanced gastric mucus production.[12] Isolated constituents from T. impetiginosa have been reported in laboratory studies to be active against H. pylori infections. [13]

T. impetiginosa has been reported to have anti-inflammatory activity in laboratory animal studies, due to its negative modulation of macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses by suppressing PGE(2) production, suggesting a possible use in inflammatory conditions such as arthritis.[14] Lapachol, isolated from T. impetiginosa, has also been reported to have COX-2 inhibiting activity.[15] Extracts also have antioxidant activity comparable to that of vitamin E. [16]

Clinical

There are no clinical studies available to support the traditional use of this herb.

Interaction and Depletions

Interaction with other Herbs

No documentation

Interaction with Drugs

Based on pharmacology, use with caution in individuals with bleeding disorders or those taking blood-thinning medications such as aspirin or warfarin (Coumadin).

T. impetiginosa extracts may also inhibit platelet aggregation, so use only under the supervision of a doctor in those with bleeding disorder or on anticoagulant drugs.[18] Discontinue if allergy occurs.

Precautions and Contraindications

Side effects

T. impetiginosa has been reported safe in recommended doses. 

Pregnancy

Do not use T. impetiginosa if pregnant or breastfeeding. The isolated chemical lapachol has demonstrated abortifacient properties in animal studies.[17]

Age limitation

No documentation

Adverse reaction

No documentation

Read More

  1)  South Central America Herbs

References

  1. Warashina T, Nagatani Y, Noro T. Constituents from the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa. Phytochemistry. Jul 2004;65(13):2003-2011.
  2. Warashina T, Nagatani Y, Noro T. Further constituents from the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa. Phytochemistry. Mar2005;66(5):589-597.
  3. Koyama J, Morita I, Tagahara K, Hirai K. Cyclopentene dialdehydes from Tabebuia impetiginosa. Phytochemistry. Apr2000;53(8):869-872.
  4. Mukherjee B, Telang N, Wong GY. Growth inhibition of estrogen receptor positive human breast cancer cells by Taheebo from the inner bark of Tabebuia avellandae tree. Int J Mol Med. Aug2009;24(2):253-260.
  5. Lee JI, Choi DY, Chung HS, et al. beta-lapachone induces growth inhibition and apoptosis in bladder cancer cells by modulation of Bcl-2 family and activation of caspases. Exp Oncol. Mar2006;28(1):30-35.
  6. Woo HJ, Choi YH. Growth inhibition of A549 human lung carcinoma cells by beta-lapachone through induction of apoptosis and inhibition of telomerase activity. Int J Oncol. Apr2005;26(4):1017-1023.
  7. Lee JH, Cheong J, Park YM, Choi YH. Down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 and telomerase activity by beta-lapachone in human prostate carcinoma cells. Pharmacol Res. Jun2005;51(6):553-560.
  8. Woo HJ, Park KY, Rhu CH, et al. Beta-lapachone, a quinone isolated from Tabebuia avellanedae, induces apoptosis in HepG2 hepatoma cell line through induction of Bax and activation of caspase. J Med Food. Summer2006;9(2):161-168.
  9. Choi BT, Cheong J, Choi YH. beta-Lapachone-induced apoptosis is associated with activation of caspase-3 and inactivation of NF-kappaB in human colon cancer HCT-116 cells. Anticancer Drugs. Nov2003;14(10):845-850.
  10. Choi YH, Kang HS, Yoo MA. Suppression of human prostate cancer cell growth by beta-lapachone via down-regulation of pRB phosphorylation and induction of Cdk inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1). J Biochem Mol Biol. 31Mar2003;36(2):223-229.
  11. Queiroz ML, Valadares MC, Torello CO, et al. Comparative studies of the effects of Tabebuia avellanedae bark extract and beta-lapachone on the hematopoietic response of tumour-bearing mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 8 May2008;117(2):228-235.
  12. Twardowschy A, Freitas CS, Baggio CH, et al. Antiulcerogenic activity of bark extract of Tabebuia avellanedae, Lorentz ex Griseb. J Ethnopharmacol. 13Aug2008;118(3):455-459.
  13. Park BS, Lee HK, Lee SE, et al. Antibacterial activity of Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC (Taheebo) against Helicobacter pylori. J Ethnopharmacol. 21Apr2006;105(1-2):255-262.
  14. Byeon SE, Chung JY, Lee YG, et al. In vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of taheebo, a water extract from the inner bark of Tabebuia avellanedae. J Ethnopharmacol. 2Sep2008;119(1):145-152.
  15. Lee JH, Cheong J, Park YM, Choi YH. Down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 and telomerase activity by beta-lapachone in human prostate carcinoma cells. Pharmacol Res. Jun2005;51(6):553-560.
  16. Park BS, Lee KG, Shibamoto T, Lee SE, Takeoka GR. Antioxidant activity and characterization of volatile constituents of Taheebo (Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC). J Agric Food Chem. 1Jan2003;51(1):295-300.
  17. Guerra Mde O, Mazoni AS, Brandão MA, Peters VM. Toxicology of Lapachol in rats: embryolethality. Braz J Biol. Feb2001;61(1):171-174.
  18. Son DJ, Lim Y, Park YH, et al. Inhibitory effects of Tabebuia impetiginosa inner bark extract on platelet aggregation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation through suppressions of arachidonic acid liberation and ERK1/2 MAPK activation. J Ethnopharmacol. 3Nov2006;108(1):148-151.