Articles

Fagraea fragrans

Synonyms

Cyrtophyllum lanceolatum, Cyrtophyllum peregrinum, Fragraea wallichiana, Fragraea cochinchinensis, Fragraea sororia, Fragraea gigantea  [1][5]

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia

Tembusu hutan, Tembusu Padang, Tembusu Tembaga, Lemesu, Meriang, Reriang, Temasuk (Sabah)

English Ironwood
Indonesia

Ki Badak (Sundanese); Kayu Tammusu (Sumatera); Ambinaton (Kalimantan)

Thailand

Kankrao (Central); Man Pla (Northern); Thamsao (Peninsular)

Philippines

Urung (General); Dolo (Tagbanua); Susulin (Tagalog)

Burma

Anan, Ahnyim

Cambodia Tatraou
Laos Man pa
Vietnam Trai
Fiji Islands

Bua-bua

General Information

Description

Fagraea fragrans is a member of the Logan1aceae family. It is a medium sized tree growing up to 55m with numerous spreading branches. The leaves are opposite, decussate, patent, with short petiole. It is broad-lanceolate, taper, obtuse-pointed, entire and smooth on both sides. They measures 10-12cm long and 3cm wide. The petioles are short, smooth, enlarged at the base into a stem-clasping ring encrusted with clear yellow resin when dried. The corymbs peduncled, axillary nearly as long as the leaves, decompound, decussate and smooth. The flowers are numerous, fragrant, large and coloured whitish-yellow. The bractes are small and permanent. The calyx beneath, deeply five-parted, imbricated, smooth, many times shorter than the tube of the corola. The corola one petalled. The tube between campanulate and infundibuliform. The border contorted, five-parted; divisions ovate-oblong, expanding. The filaments are 5 in numbers ascending, inserted in the mouth of the tube, and much longer than the corolla. The anthers are incumbent. The germ above, ovate in shape. The style is the length of the stamen. The stigma enlarged and entire. The berry oval in shape, a little pointed, smooth, red, pulpy, two-celled. The seeds several in each cell, angular and scabrous. [6]

Plant Part Used

No documentation

Chemical Constituents

Fagraldehyde; gentiopicroside; sweroside; swertiamarin; gentianine; pinoresinol, naucledal, gentiogenal. [4]

Traditional Used:

Gastrointestinal diseases

The Kadazan use the leaves and bark to treat pancreatitis and gastric pains by applying the pounded leaves and bark over the lesion while at the same time drinking a decoction of the same. The bark is also used in the treatment of jaundice where the powdered dried bark is taken. In neonatal jaundice a decoction of the bark is given instead. [1]

Antimalarial therapy

The decoction of the leaves is a remedy for dysenteri. It is used to treat malaria whereby a decoction of either the leaves, bark, or root. [1]

Gynaecological diseases

The leaves of F. fragrans together with roots of Amaranthus sp. is boiled and given 5 to 6 days after the end of menstruation to ensure subsequent ease of flow. [1]

The bark is febriguge. [2]

Pre-Clinical Data

Pharmacology

Antimicrobial activity

Antiviral activity

Sweroside was isolated from the stem bark, roots, fruits and stems of F. fragrans. It was found to have mild anti-HSV-1 (Herpes simples virus type 1)  activity. [7] [8]

Antibacterial activity

Pinoresinol, naucledal and gentiogenal were isolated from various parts of F. fragrans showed antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Ra). [8]

Antimalarial activity

A secoiridoid aglycone isolated from the bark and leaves of F. fragrans called fagraldehyde was found to be weakly active against Plasmodium falciparum.[7] Pinoresinol, another isolate of Fagraea fragran Roxb., also showed anti-plasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum (K1 strain). [8]

Cytotoxic activity

Naucledal and gentiogenal was isolated from F. fragrans. They were found to exhibit cytotoxicity towards NCI-H187 cell lines. [8]

Toxicities

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation

Geriatrics

No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

Contraindications

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

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  1) Botanical Info

References

    1. Kamaruddin Mat-Salleh, A. Latif Tumbuhan Ubatan Malaysia Pusat Pengurusan Penyelidikan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Bangi 2002 pg. 519
    2. K.M. Nadkarni, A.K. Nadkarni Dr. K.M. Nadkarni’s Indian Materia Medica., Volume 2 Popular Prakashan Pvt. Ltd. 1976 pg. 534
    3. Alexander L. Howard A Manual of the Timbers of the World – Their Characteristics and Uses R & R Clark Ltd. Edinburgh 1934 pg. 20
    4. Richard Helmuth Fred Masnke The Alkaloids: Chemistry and Physiology, Volume 10 Academic Press Inc. New York 1968 pg.561
    5. Friedrich Anton Wilhelm Miquel Flora van Nederlandsch Indi’e, Volumes 1 – 2 pg. 376
    6. William Roxburgh Flora Indica; or Description of Indian Plants, Volume 1 W. Thacker & Co. Calcutta 1832 pg. 461 – 462
    7. Jonville MC, Capel M, Frédérich M, Angenot L, Dive G, Faure R, Azas N, Ollivier E. Fagraldehyde, a secoiridoid isolated from Fagraea fragrans. J Nat Prod. 2008 Dec;71(12):2038-40.
    8. Samneang Apisantiyakom Isolation and Identification of Bioactive Chemical Constituents of the roots of Bauhinia saccocalyx Pierre and Fagraea fragrans Roxb. (http://203.158.6.22:8080/sutir/bitstream/123456789/1153/2/samneang_fulltext.pdf) [ Accessed on 8th October 2010]