Tinospora cordifolia

Tinospora cordifolia

Synonyms

Tinospora glabra 

Vernacular Name

Guduchi, gulancha, amrita, giloe, sindal, giloya, gado, galo, duyutige, teppatige, heartleaf moonseed, brotowali, andawali, putrawali, makabuhay, paliaban, pangiauban, taganagtagua.

Description

Its smooth leaves are wide at the base and cordately come to a sharp point. The aerial stems have are slender, generally 1cm in diameter; however they can reach 6 cm in diameter in some cases. The red, fleshy fruit borne of the yellow-green flowers are roughly the size of a pea. [2] While having been used in Ayurvedic medicine for thousands of years, it was not brought to European countries until the early 19th century. [3] 

Origin / Habitat

T. cordifolia is a climbing shrub native to lower elevations in the tropical areas of the Indian subcontinent. T. cordifolia grows in many other kinds of soil and climbs numerous trees. [1]

Chemical Constituents

Beta-sitosterol, clerodane furano, cordifol, cordifolide, columbin. diterpene, diterpenoid furanolactone tinosporidine, heptacosanol, tinosporaside, tinosporide, tinsporine, [2] Alpha-D-glucan. [6]

Plant Part Used

Root, stem. [4]

Traditional Use

Guduchi is an important herb in the traditional Ayurvedic medicinal system due to its numerous uses. The vine is considered most prized when it found climbing the Neem (Azadirachta indica) which is considered almost magical in traditional Ayurveda. [1] It should be noted that in most of the Ayurvedic uses indicate that the fresh plant is far more efficacious than the dried plant. [5] Guduchi is considered very useful in removing toxins from almost all bodily systems and is used in Ayurvedic practice to treat scorpion stings. [4] It has also been used in India to treat leprosy. 

Most commonly, Guduchi is used for its benefits to the liver. [7] It has been indicated to be useful in treatment of dyspepsia, jaundice and hepatitis, as well as promote general liver health. [1] Guduchi has also been used to treat diarrhea and dysentery. [5] Either the fresh juice or the aqueous extract have antipyretic activity, as T.cordifolia has been used to treat fevers, including those caused by the common cold and allergic rhinitis. [8] Additionally, the juice of Guduchi has been used to treat gonorrhea. The extract of the plant is called “Indian Quinine”. [4] Its rasa (taste) is classified as tikta (bitter) and it pacifies the Kapha and Vata doshas while stimulating the Pitta dosha. 

Dosage

1-3g Powder, 1-2g extract, 56-112ml decoction per dose. [5]

Pharmacology

Pre-clinical

A human study published in 2007 found that Tinospora Cordifolia was a significant adjuvant in diabetic foot ulcer due to its immunomodulatory action. For 18 months, 45 patients inflicted with diabetic doot ulcer completed a double-blind placebo study in which they were administered T. cordifolia in addition to standard treatment. The control group exhibited improved symptoms in 59.1% of patients while the study group showed improvement in 73.9% of the subjects. The wound severity was reduced in addition to improved healing time. T. cordifolia has shown to be effective in reducing the number of debridements due to its phagocytic activity. [9] A laboratory study also had results using the chemical (1,4)-alpha-D-glucan, a constituent isolated from T. cordifolia, as an immunomodulatory, stating that it activates macrophages and cytokine production. [6] 

Tinospora cordifolia is very useful in treatment of diabetes, as it has hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity. [10] One animal study determined that the ability of T. cordifolia to reduce blood glucose levels to may be considered comparable to insulin. [11] 

Numerous studies have indicated the hepatoprotective behavior of T. cordifolia, as well at its generally beneficial effects on the liver. A 2002 animal study states that it promotes liver health in addition to its immunomodulatory role. [12] This may be due to its ability to stabilize cell membrane which is useful in treating hepatic disorders. [7] 

Tinospora cordifolia also plays a useful role in cancer treatment. It displays chemopreventiveand radiopotective ability, and also inhibits lipid peroxidation. [13][14][15][16] Additionally, the plant has shown promising antineoplastic activity in mice, yielding a cytotoxic effect on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. [17] 

A review study has also listed T. cordifolia as antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory and antileprotic. [18] Additionally, studies have shown that Tinospora cordifolia may have androgenic activity. [19] An animal study also suggests that it has beneficial effects on osteoporosis, as it increases estrogen in the bone, but not in reproductive organs of women. [20]

Clinical

A placebo-controlled study examined the use of T. cordifolia as a treatment for allergic rhinitis. Seventy-five patients were divided into two groups and administered either T. cordifolia or a placebo for eight weeks and then clinically examined for improvement in regard to the symptoms associated with allergic rhinitis. The group using T. cordifolia demonstrated a complete relief from sneezing in 83% of the patients. In the placebo group, 79% of the patients stated that they found no relief. The study also showed a significant reduction in nasal discharge and nasal obstruction for those from the study group. T.cordifolia also decreased the eosinophil and neutrophil count while eliminating goblet cells in the nasal cavity. [8] A review study in 2003 also considers T. cordifolia for its antiallergic and antipyretic activity. [14]

Interaction and Depletions

Interaction with other Herbs

No documentation.

Interaction with Drugs

There are no documented interactions with other drugs. There is limited information on the active chemicals responsible for its pharmacological activity.

Precautions and Contraindications

Side effects

No documentation.

Pregnancy

Not to be used by pregnant or nursing women.

Age limitation

No documentation.

Adverse reaction

No documentation.

References

  1. Premila, M.S. Ayurvedic Herbs: A Clinical Guide to the Healing Plants of Traditional Indian Medicine. Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Press; 2006.
  2. Herbal Monograph – Tinospora cordifolia. The Himalaya Drug Company. 2002. Available from: http://www.himalayahealthcare.com/herbfinder/h_tinosp.htm. [Accessed on 9 March 2009].
  3. Friedrich August Flückiger, Daniel Hanbury. Pharmacographia; a History of the Principal Drugs of Vegetable Origin. London, UK: Macmillan and Co; 1897.
  4. Nadkarni KM. Indian Materia Medica. Bombay, India: Popular Prakashan; 1976.
  5. Kapoor, LD. CRC Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2001.324.
  6. Nair PK, Melnick SJ, Ramachandran R, Escalon E, Ramachandran C. Mechanism of macrophage activation by (1,4)-alpha-D-glucan isolated from Tinospora cordifolia. Int Immunopharmacol. 5Dec2006;6(12):1815-1824.
  7. Upadhyay L, Mehrotra A, Srivastava AK, Rai NP, Tripathi K. An experimental study of some indigenous drugs with special reference to hydraulic permeability. Indian J Exp Biol. Dec 2001;39(12):1308-1310.
  8. Badar VA, Thawani VR, Wakode PT, et al. Efficacy of Tinospora cordifolia in allergic rhinitis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;96:445-449.
  9. Purandare H, Supe A. Immunomodulatory role of Tinospora cordifolia as an adjuvant in surgical treatment of diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective randomized controlled study. Indian J Med Sci. Jun2007;61(6):347-355.
  10. Stanely Mainzen Prince P, Menon VP. Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic action of alcohol extract of Tinospora cordifolia roots in chemical induced diabetes in rats. Phytother Res. Apr 2003;17(4):410-413.
  11. Wadood N, Wadood A, Shah SA. Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on blood glucose and total lipid levels of normal and alloxan-diabetic rabbits. Planta Med. Apr1992;58(2):131-136.
  12. Bishayi B, Roychowdhury S, Ghosh S, Sengupta M. Hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory properties of Tinospora cordifolia in CCl4 intoxicated mature albino rats. J Toxicol Sci. Aug 2002;27(3):139-146.
  13. Dhanasekaran M, Baskar AA, Ignacimuthu S, Agastian P, Duraipandiyan V. Chemopreventive potential of Epoxy clerodane diterpene from Tinospora cordifolia against diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. Invest New Drugs. 14Oct2008.
  14. Chaudhary R, Jahan S, Goyal PK. Chemopreventive potential of an Indian medicinal plant (Tinospora cordifolia) on skin carcinogenesis in mice. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2008;27(3):233-243.
  15. Goel HC, Prasad J, Singh S, Sagar RK, Agrawala PK, Bala M, Sinha AK, Dogra R. Radioprotective potential of an herbal extract of Tinospora cordifolia. J Radiat Res (Tokyo). Mar 2004;45(1):61-68.
  16. Singh RP, Banerjee S, Kumar PV, Raveesha KA, Rao AR. Tinospora cordifolia induces enzymes of carcinogen/drug metabolism and antioxidant system, and inhibits lipid peroxidation in mice. Phytomedicine. Jan2006;13(1-2):74-84.
  17. Jagetia GC, Rao SK. Evaluation of the antineoplastic activity of guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma bearing mice. Biol Pharm Bull. Mar2006;29(3):460-466.
  18. SS Singh, SC Pandey, S Srivastava, VS Gupta, B Patro. Chemistry and medicinal properties of Tinospora cordifolia (GUDUCHI). Ind J Pharmacol. 2003; 35:83-91.
  19. Kapur P, Pereira BM, Wuttke W, Jarry H. Androgenic action of Tinospora cordifolia ethanolic extract in prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Phytomedicine. 19Dec2008.
  20. Kapur P, Jarry H, Wuttke W, Pereira BM, Seidlova-Wuttke D. Evaluation of the antiosteoporotic potential of Tinospora cordifolia in female rats. Maturitas. 20Apr2008;59(4):329-338.