Adenanthera pavonina

Synonyms

Adenanthera microsperma, Corollaria parvifolia [1]

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia Saga Pokok, Sigawe, Saga Tumpul Daun, Saga Hutan
English Condori wood, Bean tree, Peacock tree, Circassian bean, Red Sandalwood tree
Indonesia Segawe sabrang (Java)
Cambodia Phai, Maklam-takai
Laos Lam ta; Kh’way
Vietnam Lim v[af]ng, Mang lai. r[af]ng r[af]ng
Philippines Alalangat, Alang-langalBaguiroro, Bahay, Casay
India Rajana, Condori
Sri Lanka Mas-moca
French Bois de condari, Bois de corail
Cuba Mato Colorado
Brazil Carolina [1] [3] [4]

General Information

Description

Adenanthera pavonina is a member of the Fabaceae family. It is a large tree reaching up to 10m high. The leaves are bipinnated; pinnae in 4-6 pairs with leaflets 12-20, alternating, elliptic-oblong, obtuse, glabrous measuring  2.5cm long. The racemes measure 5-15cm long, solitary in the leafaxils or panicles at the end of the branches. The flowers with slender pedicels, yellowish. The calyx small, 5-toothed; petals 5. The corolla with a very short tube and lanceolate lobes. The pos slightly twisted measuring 10-22cm long; valves twisting. The seeds compressed, scarlet, shining, about 8mm broad. [2]

Plant Part Used

Leaves, bark and seeds [9]

Chemical Constituents

1,2-diacylglycerols; 1,3-diacylglycerols; 24-epiclerosterol; 24-methyl cholesterol;  beta-sitosterol; docosanoic acid; eicosanoic acid; eicosenoic acid; eicosadienoic acid; isofucosterol; lignoicerotic acid; linoleic acid; lysophosphatidylcholine; myristic acid; oleic acid; palmitic acid; palmitoleic acid; pavonin; pentadecanoic acid; phosphatidylcholine; phosphatidylethanolamine; stearic acid; stigmasterol; sitosterol; triacylglycerols. [6] [8]

Traditional Used:

Inflammatory Diseases

The leaves and seeds of A. pavonia had been used in the treatment of rheumatism and gout. Powdered seeds is also used for treatment of abscesses.

Other Uses

The bark is considered a tonic while the seeds in powdered form is used in treatment of headaches. [9]

Pre-Clinical Data

Pharmacology

Anti-inflammatory activity

The methanolic extract of the seeds of A. pavonia was evaluated for its anti-inflammatory effects in animal models. The investigators found a significant anti-inflammatory activity in all animal models tested (carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats, acetic-acid-induced vascular permeability in mice, pleurisy induced with carrageenan) in a dose dependant manner. In a more recent study by Mayuren et al., [7] the ethanolic extract of the leaves also has anti-inflammatory activity which they feel could possibly be due to the presence of active constituents like beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol and probablu also due to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. [5]

Analgesic activity

In the acetic acid-induced writhing in mice it was found that the methanolic extract of the seeds of A. pavonia could inhibit it. Additionally, both the early and late phase of the formalin-induced paw. [5]

Toxicities

The seeds are poisonous when taken internally, especially when in a powdered state. [3] Olumayokun et al.  [5] found that acute toxicity studies on the methanol extract of A. pavonia produced reduced motor activity. The LD50 of the extract was found to be 1.36g/kg.

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation

Geriatrics

No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

Contraindications

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

Read More

  1) Botanical Info

References

  1. Peter Hanelt Mansfled’s Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops Volume 5 Springer-Verlag Berlin 2001 pg. 583
  2. J. Lanjouw, August Adriaan Pulle, A.L. Stoffers Flora of Suriname Volume 2 Issue 2 Van Eedenfonds, Netherlands 1976  pg. 269
  3. Heber Drury The Useful Plants of India William H. Allen & Co., London 1873 pg. 16
  4. I. Faridah Hanum and L.J.G Van der Maesen PROSEA: Plant Resources of South-East Asia 11, Auxiliary Plants Rrosea Foundation Bogor 1997  pg. 266
  5. Olumayokun A. Olajide, Chinonye A. Echianu, Aduragbemid D. A. Adedapo and Janet M. Makinde Anti-inflammaotry studies on Adenanthera pavonina seed extract Inflammopharmacology 2004 Vol 12(2):197-202
  6. Robert Zarnowski, Anna Jaromin, Milan Certik, Tibor Czabany, Joel Fontaine, TIbor Jakubik, Mohamned C.M. Iqbal, Anne Grandmouhin-Feriani, Arkadiusz Kozubek, Stanislaw J. Pietr. The Oli of Adenanthera pavonina Linn. seeds and its emulsions  Z.Naturforsch. 2004 59c:321 – 326. 
  7. C Mayuren, R Ilavarasan Anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic leaf extracts from Adenanthera pavonina (L) in Rats PHARMACOGNOSY2009 Volume: 1(2): 125 – 128
  8. Ali MS, Ahmed F, Azhar I, Pervez MK. Pavonin: a new five-membered lactone from Adenanthera pavonina Linn. (Mimoaceae). Nat Prod Res. 2005 Jan;19(1):37-40.
  9. Kamarudin Mat-Salleh, A. Latiff Tumbuhan Ubatan Malaysia Pusat Pengurusan Penyelidikan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 2002 pg. 356