Eleusine indica

Synonyms

Cynodon indicus, Cynosurus indicus, Eleusine gracilis, Eleusin marginata, Eragrostis indica, Juncus bulbosus, Juncus loureiroanus  [2] [3] [4].

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia

Rumput Sambau

English Crowsfoot Grass (Australia); Goosegrass (USA); Wire Grass, Yard Grass
Indonesia

Rumput Belulang

Philippines

Bag-angan, Barangan (Bicolomo); Padpad (Bisaya); Palagtiki (Cebuano); Labba-labba, Parangis, Sabung-sabungan (Ilocano); Palagtiki (Ilongo); Bakis-bakisan, Kabit-kabit, Parag-is, sabong-sabongan, sambali (Tagalog)

Thailand

Yaa Teen-ka

Laos

Nya Phak Kole

Myanmar

Sin-ngo-let-kyar, Sin-ngo-myet

Vietnam

Man-trau

India

Jangali marua, Jhingari, Nandimukha, Nandiaa (Orissa); Mahaar, Naachni (Maharashtra); Thippa Ragi (Tamil Nadu)

Bangladesh

Binna Challa, Chapra, Gaicha, Malangakuri

French

Pied de Poule

Spanish Grama de Caballo
Malawi Chinsangwi, Chigombe, Kanggodza, Chipikamongu [2] [5] [6]

General Information

Description

Eleusine indica is a member of the Poaceae family. It is a smooth or slightly hairy, tufted, prostrate to ascending grass reaching up to 90cm tall. The stem is white or pale green, is laterally flattened, smooth or with a few long hairs along the edges. The leaf sheath measures 6-9cm long, flattened laterally with a few long hairs at the collar. The leaf blade is flat or folded, linear-lanceolate measuring 10-30cm long and 3-6mm wide with almost parallel margins and a rather blunt tip. It has a few scattered hairs on the upper surface. The ligule is membranous with a jagged edge. The long hairs occur on the margins at the junction of the blade and sheath. The inflorescence is digitate, profusely branching at the base. The terminal whorl of 3-6 spikes measures 4-8cm long and 3-6mm wide. It often has 1 to 2 additional spikes slightly below the others. The numerous spikelets are sessile, awnless measure 4-5mm long, laterally compressed, and crowded into 2 rows along the underside of the flattened rachis. The fruit is a red-brown caryopsis measuring about 1.5mm long, oblong-ovate with conspicuous ridges. [1]

Plant Part Used

Whole plants including the seeds [2] [5]

Chemical Constituents

3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-beta-sitosterol; schaftoside; vitexin [7]

Traditional Used:

Gastrointestinal Diseases

In Central Sumatra E. indica is used to treat worms while in Indo-china, it is being used to treat liver complains and also serve as a stomachic. The Colombian takes a decoction of the whole plant to relieve diarrhoae and dysentery. The plant is also used to treat liver complaints like jaundice in children where the decoction of the seeds is used by the Venezuelans. [2] [5]

Respiratory Diseases

The African nations used this plant to treat respiratory symptoms like cough and heamoptysis. In Trinidad, it is even used to treat pneumonia.[6]

Other Uses

Juice extracted from the leaves is given to women to ease the delivery of the placenta as prescribed in Peninsular Malaysia. It is considered a sudorific and is used to treat fever. Decoction of the whole plant is also a diuretic and is used to treat urinary infection. [2] [5] [6] [8]

Pre-Clinical Data

Pharmacology

Anti-inflammatory activity

De Melo et al. studied the anti-inflammatory activities of the aerial parts of E. indica. They found that 400microg/kg of schaftoside and vitexin isolated form E. indica inhibited 62% and 80% of lung neutrophil influx, respectively in mice.

Toxicities

The leaves are cyanogenic especially when wilted and is considered poisonous to mammals. The seeds has higher content of HCN and under certain conditions the plant may accumulate toxic levels of nitrates.

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation

Geriatrics

No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

Contraindications

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

References

  1. Dr. K.E. Mueller Field Problems of Tropical Rice International Rice Research Institute Manila 1989 pg. 134
  2. Marita Ignacio Galinato, Keith Moody, Colin M. Piggin Upland Rice Weeds of South and Southeast Asia International Rice Research Institute Manila 1999 pg. 82
  3. Katy Mallett (Australian Biological Resources Study) Poaceae 3, Volume 44 CSIRO Publishing Collingwood pg. 417
  4. Merril: Loureiro’s “Flora Cochinchinensis” in Tansactions American Philosophical Soceity (Vol. 24, Part 2, 1935) American Philosophical Society Philadelphia 1935 pg. 78
  5. C.P. Khare Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary Springer-Verlag Berlin 2007 pg. 236
  6. Brain Morris Chewa Medical Botany: A Study of Herbalism in Southern Malawi LIT Verlag Hamburg pg 315-316
  7. De Melo GO, Muzitano MF, Legora-Machado A, Almeida TA, De Oliveira DB, Kaiser CR, Koatz VL, Costa SS. C-glycosylflavones from the aerial parts of Eleusine indica inhibit LPS-induced mouse lung inflammation. Planta Med. 2005 Apr;71(4):362-3.
  8. I.H. Burkill A Dictionary of Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula Volume 1 Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperative Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 1966 pg 378