Pternandra echinata Jack

Pternandra echinata Jack




Kibessia acuminata Dcne, K. angustifolia Blume, K. echinata (Jack) Cogn.

Vernacular Names

Malaysia Kayu kaki kura, lemak ketam, sial menaun (Peninsular).
Thailand Kan phlu, tho paa (Peninsular).

Geographical Distributions

Pternandra echinata is distributed from Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, the Riau Archipelago and Borneo.


P. echinata is an evergreen, small to medium-sized tree that can reach up to measuring 25(-30) m tall. The bole is usually straight, up to measure 90 cm in diametre while the buttresses are present in larger individuals. The bark surface is finely to shallowly fissured, sometimes peels off and it is dark grey to brown or yellow-brown in colour. The inner bark is thin, fibrous, whitish or pale brown to orange or brown-red in colour. The twigs are cylindrical and with 4-angled or 4-winged.

The leaves are arranged opposite, simple, entire, 3-5-veined from the base and exstipulate.

The flowers are in few- to many-flowered, axillary or terminal cymes, sometimes umbellate or reduced to glomerules and with 4-merous. The sepal tube is bell-shaped, set with spines, scales or bristle-like appendages. Petals are free. The 8 stamens are equal. The anthers are axe-or wedge-shaped and opened by a longitudinal slit. The ovary is inferior and unites with the sepal tube, 4-locular with many ovules and 1 style.

The fruit is a many-seeded berry, often truncate and with a crater-like depression at the top and ornamented like the sepal.

Ecology / Cultivation

P. echinata is common in primary and secondary lowland forest, and also occur in forest edges and thickets, up to 1300 m altitude. P. echinata has also been found in swamp forest and along rivers.

Line Drawing / Photograph



  1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 5 (3): Timber trees: Lesser-known timbers.