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Payena leerii (Teijsm. & Binnend.) Kurz

Payena leerii (Teijsm. & Binnend.) Kurz




P. croixiana Pierre, Madhuca leerii (Teijsm. & Binnend.) Merr.

Vernacular Names

Getah sundek, balam sundek (Peninsular).
Indonesia Balam beringin, balam suntei (Sumatra), kolan (Kalimantan).
Philippines Edkoyan (Tagbanua).

Geographical Distributions

Payena leerii is found in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, the Riau Archipelago, Bangka, Borneo and the southern Philippines (Palawan, Mindanao, Sulu Archipelago); it is cultivated in Java, and rarely also in tropical Africa and South America.


P. leerii is a medium-sized to fairly large tree that can reach up to measure 40 m tall, with columnar bole up to measure 80 cm in diametre, buttressed and contains white latex which turns yellow upon exposure. The twigs are slender and terete and usually hairy or scurfy.

The leaves are arranged alternate or spirally, simple and entire. The stipules are measure about 3-4 mm long and fall off early. The petiole is measure about 0.5-1.5 cm long. The blade is broadly ovate to oblong-lanceolate in shape, with a size of measure about 5-16 cm x 1.5-8 cm, wedge-shaped to rounded base, acuminate apex and hairless on both sides. The midrib is sunken above and prominent below. The secondary veins are 11-18, straight, curve towards the apex and joined near leaf margin while the tertiary veins are mostly descending from the marginal conjunctions of secondary veins and ramify into 2-3 branches which run parallel towards the midrib and the tertiary vein is just visible on the lower leaf surface.

The inflorescence is a small and axillary (sometimes pseudo-terminal) fascicle, which is 1-8-flowered and often in defoliate leaf-axils. The pedicel is measuring 1-1.5 cm long. The white to yellow-white in colour of flowers are bisexual, very small in size and up to measure 0.5 cm long. There are 4 sepals, which are measure about 2-4 mm long. The 2 outer ones are thick and fleshy while the 2 inner ones are thinner. The 8-lobed petal is measuring 2 mm long, with short tube, hairless and it is white or yellowish-white in colour. The stamens are 16 that inserted at the throat of the petal tube, with short, pubescent filaments, acute anthers and long-ciliated connective. The 1 pistil is with long conoidal 8-celled ovary and persistent style and it is measure about 6-8 mm long.

The green fruit is a berry, cone-shaped or narrowly so, with a flat broad base, with a size of measure about 2.5-5 cm x 1-2.5 cm, smooth or nearly hairless, abruptly passing into the style at apex and usually 1-seeded. Seedling is with epigeal germination while the hypocotyl is elongated. The cotyledons are emergent while the leaves are arranged alternate-spiral from the start.

Ecology / Cultivation

P. leerii is most commonly found in primary forest, up to 1000 m altitude.

Line Drawing / Photograph



  1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 18: Plants producing exudates.


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