Terminalia citrina (Gaertner) Roxb. ex Fleming

Terminalia citrina (Gaertner) Roxb. ex Fleming




Terminalia arborea Koord. & Valeton, T. comintana Merr., T. curtisii Ridley.

Vernacular Names

Malaysia jelawai belang rimau, antoi puteh (Peninsular), talisai jambu (Sabah).
Indonesia blabah (Javanese), tengeh caah (Sundanese), mertaki   (Sumatra).
Philippines binggas (general), apunga (Tagalog), bungras (Bikol).
Thailand samo-dingu (central), samo-muak, samo-liam (peninsular).

Geographical Distributions

Terminalia citrina is distributed from India and Burma (Myanmar) towards Thailand and throughout Malesia except for New Guinea.


T. citrina is a medium-sized to fairly large tree that can reach up to measure 40 m tall. The bole is up to measure 210 cm in diametre and usually with small buttresses up to measure 3 m high. The bark surface is smooth and scaly with large thin scales, fawn and brown or greyish-brown in colour. The inner bark is laminated and pink or yellow-brown with a yellow band at the cambium.

The leaves are arranged alternate to opposite, elliptical to oblong-elliptical in shape, with a size of measure about 3-14 cm x 1.8-6.5 cm, rounded to broadly wedge-shaped at the base, pubescent to almost hairless rufous, with 9-12 pairs of secondary veins and 5-25 mm long petiole.

The flowers are in an axillary or terminal panicle of measuring 3-6 cm long. The sepal tube is hairless outside.

The 5-angled fruit is an ellipsoid to slightly spherical in shape, with a size of measure about  2-3 cm x 0.8-2 cm and smooth.

Ecology / Cultivation

T. citrina occurs scattered but usually frequent in lowland forest and along seashores, up to 200 m altitude.

Line Drawing / Photograph



    1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 5 (2): Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers.