Lindernia ciliata (Colsm.) Pennell

Lindernia ciliata (Colsm.) Pennell




Gratiola ciliata Colsm., Bonnaya brachiata Link & Otto, Ilysanthes ciliata (Colsm.) Kuntze.

Vernacular Names

Thailand Phak hom ho paa (South-eastern).
Vietnam m[af]n r[if]a.

Geographical Distributions

Lindemia ciliate is distributed throughout from tropical and subtropical Asia, from India to southern China, L. ciliate is also occurs throughout Southeast Asia to northern Australia and Polynesia.



L. ciliata is a small, annual, erect, or prostrate herb at the base and up to measure about 15 cm tall.

The leaves are oblong to obovate in shape, with a size measure about 10-35 mm long, attenuate base, densely sharply serrate margins, with long bristle teeth and absent petiole.

The flowers are in terminal racemes, with a  size measure about 2-8 cm long, There are 3-13-flowered and 3-7 mm long pedicel. The size of measure 6 mm long petal tube is narrow cylindrical in shape. The upper lip is erect, concave and white with red stripe in colour  while the lower lip is patent, as well as with 3-lobed and white-red spotted. There are 2 stamens, 2 staminodes, short and curved, red base and white apex.

The capsule is erect to-patent, linear, acute attenuate and it is measuring about 11-15 mm long.

The seed is ellipsoid in shape, with a size measure 0.3 mm long, reticulately pitted, acute base while the apex is flattened or rounded.


Ecology / Cultivation

L. ciliata occurs on sunny or lightly shaded areas, often grassy localities, along roadsides, in fallowed fields and rainfed rice fields, generally occurs on light soils, also often gregarious, from sea-level up to 700 m altitude.


Line Drawing / Photograph



    1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 12 (2): Medicinal and poisonous plants.