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Acrostichum aureum

Acrostichum aureum

Synonyms

Chrysodium aureum Mett,. 1856 [Fil. Hort. Lips.:21]; Acrostichum inaequale Willd. Pappe and Rawson, 44; Kunze, Linnaea 21, 207; Acrostichum maritimum Gueinzius MS.; Asplenium scolopendrium (non Linn) Lour. Fl. Cochinch. 677. 1790, ed. Willd 832, 1793 [1]

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia Piai raya, Paku bulu emas, Paku laut, Larat, Peye, Piai, Piai lasa, Umbi piai, Pebisi
Indonesia Paku tiai (Sunda); Kalakeok, Kerakas, Wihakas (Java)
Philippines Lagolo, Piai, Pakupakuan, Lapole
Vietnam Cay rang la, Rang bien thuong
India Minni (Tamil)
Sri Lanka Karen koku
Jamaica Alligator rush, Crab thatch, Golden fern, Gold fern [2] [3] [6]

General Information

Description

Acrostichum aureum is a member of the Pteridaceae family. The crown is erect and very large. The fronds are pinnate, rigid, coriaceous, glabrous, 0.9–1.8m long, 30cm wide, with a rigid naked strip 30–60cm long. The pinnae oblong-lanceolate, the lower shortly stalked and barren, 15–35cm long and 2.5–5.0cm wide; the upper fertile, almost sessile, one 10–15cm long, 1.5–2.5 cm broad, with a recurved margin all rounded and obtuse, or mucronat at the apex, rounded or shortly cuneate at the base and with the margin entire. The mid-rib conspicuous; veinlets often obtuse, anastomosing freely into small irregular areolae, but without any main veins, or any free veinlets. The fertile pinnae wholly occupied with sori except the mid-rib. [1]

Plant Part Used

Leaves, roots and rhizomes. [2] [3] [6]

Chemical Constituents

No documentation

Traditional Used:

In Malaysia,  the powdered or grated rhizomes of A. aureum are used to treat wounds, non-healing ulcers and boils.[2] [6]  In India, the frond is applied over venomous snakebites as an antidote.[3] Others, the fertile fronds and roots are used traditionally for syphilitic ulcers.[6]

In Fiji, A. aureum are used to treat sore throat, chest pains, elephantiasis, constipation,purgative and febrifuge. In Bangladesh, the leaves of  A. aureum are used to cure cloudy urine in women.[2]

Pre-Clinical Data

Pharmacology

Antifertility activity
It was first reported in 1985 that the ethanolic and acetone extract of A. aureum showed anti-implantation activity in rats. The water soluble fraction of ethanolic (95%) extract was found to have prevented pregnancy in female rats during administered on day 1–7 postcoitus. The fraction does not have neither oestrogenic nor anti-oestrogenic activities. [4]

Cytotoxic activity
In a screening of Bangladeshi medicinal plants extracts of  A. aureum was proved that to have low toxicity against mouse fibroblasts and selective cytotoxicity against different cancer cell lines.[5]

Toxicities

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

70.8% of patients with allergic rhinitis developed positive skin reaction when provoked with intracutaneous injection of extracts of spores of A. aureum. Of the 20 non-allergic ENT patients, only 20% gave weakly positive skin test and 15% gave mild reactions to nasal provocation test. The result showed that the spores are potentially allergenic.[7]

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

A study reported that the extract of A. aureum prevented pregnancy in rats. Therefore, pregnant women should be cautious when considering its use during pregnancy. [4]

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation

Geriatrics

No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

Contraindictions

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

References

  1. Thomas Robertson Sim. The Ferns of South Africa Containing Descriptions and Figures of the Ferns and Fern. Allies of South Africa. University Press; 1915.  p. 292.
  2. Philippines Alternative Medicine: Lagolo. [cited 2011 Feb 18]. Available from: http://www.stuartxchange.org/Lagolo.html
  3. Checklist of Mangrove species of South East India and Sri Lanka. [cited 2011 February 18]. Available from: http://umramap.cirad.fr/amap2/logiciels_amap/Mangrove_web/especes/a/acrau/acrau.html
  4. Dhar JD, Setty BS, Lakshmi V, Bhakuni DS. Post-coital antifertility activity of marine plant, Achrostichum aureum L. in rats. Indian J. Med. Res. 1992; 96:150-152.
  5. Uddin SJ, Grice ID, Tiralongo E. Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2009 Aug 25.
  6. Burkill IH. A Dictionary of Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives Kuala Lumpur; 1966. p. 41.
  7. Bunnag C, Dhorranintra B, Limsuvan S, Jareoncharsri P. Ferns and their allergenic importance: skin and nasal provocation tests to fern spore extract in allergic and non-allergic patients. Ann Allergy. 1989 Jun; 62(6):554-8.

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