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Jatropha integrimma

Botanical Name

Jatropha integrimma

Synonyms

Jatropha integrimma

Family

Euphorbiaceae

Vernacular Names

Malaysia 

Jarak Belanda

English

Rose-flowered Jatropha, Spicy Jatropha, Peregrina

Description

Jatropha integerrima is a member of the Euphorbiaceae family. It is a tree that could reach up to 5 m high. The leaves are simple, alternate, oblong to obovate with lobed margins. They are measuring between 10 – 20 cm long and are evergreen. The flowers are red and showy and appears all year round. The fruits are oval measures 1 – 2.5 cm. 

Distribution

Native of tropical South America. Today it is distributed globally as a landscape plant.

Plant Use

Ornamental

Toxic Parts

Whole plant especially the seeds. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

Toxin

Jatrophin (curcin), a toxalbumin causing bleeding lesions in the mouth, oesophagus, stomach, and intestine. Jatrophin (curcin), is also a violent purgative that stimulates bowel movement. The poison kills by interfering with the synthesis of protein in intestinal wall cells. [1] [2] [3]

Risk Management

This plant should be kept out of reach of children. The attractive seeds could tempt toddlers into consuming it. [4]

Clinical Findings

The symptoms of poisoning is similar to those of J. curcas due to the same toxin i.e. Jatrophin.

The reaction time is between 15 to 20 minutes. There is difficulty in breathing, sorethroat, bloating, dizziness, vomiting, diarrhoea, drowsiness, dysuria, and leg cramps. The abdominal symptoms of intense pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea may appear within an hour after ingestion. These symptoms had been attributed to the presence of cucanoleic acid in the oil.  In severe poisoning, muscular spasms and collapse may ensue and may even be fatal. Childrean are especially vulnerable because of the pleasant-tasting seeds. [1] [2] [3] [5]

Management

There is no known antidote for jatrophin. Treatment is directed towards symptomatic relieve and correction of fuild and electrolyte balance.

Gastric lavage is done in the absence of profuse vomiting. Treated with bismuth subcarbonate and magnesium trisilicate to protect the stomach. [1] [2] [3]

References

  1. Scott S, Thomas C. Poisonous Plants of Paradise: First Aid and Medical Treatment of Injuries from Hawaií's Plants University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 2000, pg. 86
  2. Stevens S, Bannon A., HowDunit – The Book of Poisons Writer’s Digest Books, Cincinnati, 2007 pg. 54
  3. Turkington C, Mitchell DR. The Encyclopedia of Poisons and Antidotes, The Estate of Carol Turkington, New York, 2010 pg. 31
  4. Available from http://hort.ufl.edu/database/documents/pdf/tree_fact_sheets/jatinta.pdf. Accessed on 28th March 2013
  5. Chomchai C, Kriengsunthornkij W, Sirisamut T, Nimsomboon T, Runggrueng W, Silapasupoagornwong U. Toxicity from ingestion of Jatropha curcas (Saboo dum) seeds in Thai Children Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 2011, Volume 42(4):946 – 950.

 

 

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