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Zingiber ottensii Valeton


 No documentation

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia Lempoyang Hitam, Kunyit Terus Hitam, Berseh Hitam, Bolai Hitam, Bonglai Hitam
Indonesia Panglai Hideung (Sunda); Bunglai Hantu (Sumatra)  [2]

General Information


Zingiber ottensii is a member of the Zingiberaceae family. The rhizome is dark purple on cross-section. The leaf stalks are close together and can reach up to 1.5m tall with many leaves. The leaves measure 25cm by 56cm, slightly pubescent on the under surface towards the base, elliptic with apex acuminate and base cuneate or rounded. The petiole is less than 5mm, pubescent. The ligule is broad, thin, undivided, hairy towards the base and measures 1.2cm long. The scape is 25-40cm tall, sheaths broad, 5-7cm long, slightly hairy near base and apex. The inflorescence is about 10 cm tall and 4.5cm wide, evenly ellipsoid with broad apex. The bracts are closely imbricated, convex on the outside with the middle part of the apical edge incurved. The initial colour of the bracts is dull red, turning bright red when old. The calyx is glabrous. The corolla tube is 3.5cm long, lobes very pale yellowish. The labellum is faint yellow mottled with pink. [1]

Plant Part Used

Stem, rhizome and leaves. [2]

Chemical Constituents

1,10,10-trimethylbicyclo[7,4,0]tridecane-3,6-dione; (E)-14-hydroxy-15-norlabda-8(17),12-dien-16-al; (E)-labda-8(17),12,14-trien-15(16)-olide; (E)-14,15,16-trinorlabda-8(17),11-dien-13-oic acid; rel-(3R,5S)-3,5-dihydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-7-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl)heptanes; p-cymene; humulene; sabinene; terpinen-4-ol; zerumbone. [3] [4]

Traditional Used:

The stem is used as part of a sedative lotion by the Javanese. In Sumatra it is used in potherb for postpartum care. For the same purpose, the traditional midwives of Perak used the rhizome and leaves as a poultice applied on the body of the women in confinement. The leaves are also used as a poultice for lumbago. [2]

Pre-Clinical Data


Antidiabetic activity

A protein with three types of subunits, 32.5, 15.2 and 13.8 kDa, was isolated from the rhizome of Z. ottensii. This protein and its subunits exhibit α-glucosidase inhibitory activity which was pH-independent within the range of 2-10, but was affected by buffer salts and relative temperature. The amino acid sequence of an internal fragment had similarity with the sequence from the plant cysteine proteinase family. [5]

Anticancer activity

The cysteine protease extracted from the rhizome of Z. ottensii was found to be similar to zingipain-1 of Z. officinale. Further analysis found it to be a glycoprotein containing 26.30% by weight of carbohydrate. This protease was found to have strong antiproliferative effects against five human cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 1.13µg/ml (hepatoma, HEP-G2) to 5.37µg/ml (colon cancer, SW620). [6]

Antifungal activity 

The glycoprotein with cysteine protease activity isolated from the rhizome of Z. ottensii was found to possess antiproliferative activity against three fungal species but no antibacterial activity. [6]

Anti-angiotensin-1 converting enzyme

The protein extract from the rhizome of Z. ottensii showed the highest angiotensin-1 converting enzyme inhibitory (ACEI) activity amongst 15 Zingiberaceae plant rhizomes. Of the five NaCl enriched (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1M) fractionation process, F75 fraction which is the bound proteins that was eluted at 0.75M was found to have the highest activity suggesting enrichment to or near to homogeneity. [7]

Anti-inflammatory activity

The crude protein extract of Z. ottensii rhizome was amongst 15 extracts tested for their ability to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production in macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cell lines. It was found that this extract showed the highest inhibitory activity apart from suppressing lipopolysaccharide- and rm-interferon (IFN)-γ-mediated increase in the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNA transcript expression levels. [8]


No documentation

Teratogenic effects

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation


No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation


Interactions with drugs

There would appear to be possible summative effects with antidiabetic drugs and antihypertensive drugs when the rhizome of Z. ottensii is taken together with them for whatever reason. [5] [7]

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation



No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation


  1. Holttum RE. Zingiberaceae of the Malay Peninsula in the Gardens’ Bulletin Volume XIII(1):56-57 1950
  2. Burkill IH., A Dictionary of Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula Volume 2, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 1966 pg. 2344 – 2345
  3. Akiyama K, Kikuzaki H, Aoki T, Okuda A, Lajis NH, Nakatani N. Terpenoids and a diarylheptanoid from Zingiber ottensii. J Nat Prod. 2006 Nov;69(11):1637-40.
  4. Thubthimthed, S, Limsiriwong, P, Rerk-am U and Suntorntanasat, T. Chemical Composition and Cytotoxic Activity of the Essential Oil of Zingiber Ottensii. Acta Hort. 2005; 675:107-109
  5. Tiengburanatam N, Boonmee A, Sangvanich P, Karnchanatat A. A novel α-glucosidase inhibitor protein from the rhizomes of Zingiber ottensii valeton. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2010 Nov;162(7):1938-51. doi: 10.1007/s12010-010-8971-7. Epub 2010 Apr 25.
  6. Karnchanatat A, Tiengburanatam N, Boonmee A, Puthong S, Sangvanich P. Zingipain, A cysteine protease from Zingiber ottensii Valeton rhizomes with antiproliferative activities against fungi and human malignant cell lines. Prep Biochem Biotechnol. 2011;41(2):138-53. doi: 10.1080/10826068.2011.547347.
  7. Yodjun M, Karnchanatat A, Sangvanich P. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory proteins and peptides from the rhizomes of Zingiberaceae plants. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2012 Apr;166(8):2037-50. doi: 10.1007/s12010-012-9630-y. Epub 2012 Mar 7.
  8. Chantaranothai C, Palaga T, Karnchanatat A, Sangvanich P. Inhibition of nitric oxide production in the macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cell line by protein from the rhizomes of Zingiberaceae plants. Prep Biochem Biotechnol. 2013;43(1):60-78. doi: 10.1080/10826068.2012.697958.


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