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Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R.Br. ex Roem. & Schult.

Synonyms

Ervatamia coronaria (Jacq.) Stapf, Ervatamia divaricata (L.) Burkill, Ervatamia flabelliformis Tsiang, Ervatamia recurva (Roxb. ex Lindl.) Lace, Ervatamia siamensis (Warb. ex Pit.) Kerr, Jasminum zeylanicum Burm.f.,  Kopsia cochinchinensis Kuntze, Nerium coronarium Jacq., Nerium divaricatum L., Nyctanthes acuminata Burm.f., Reichardia grandiflora Dennst., Reichardia jasminoides Dennst., Taberna discolor (Sw.) Miers, Tabernaemontana citrifolia Lunan, Tabernaemontana coronaria (Jacq.) Willd., Tabernaemontana discolor Sw., Tabernaemontana flabelliformis (Tsiang) P.T.Li, Tabernaemontana gratissima Lindl., Tabernaemontana indica Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. [Illegitimate], Tabernaemontana lurida Van Heurck & Müll.Arg., Tabernaemontana recurva Roxb. ex Lindl., Tabernaemontana siamensis Warb. ex Pit., Testudipes recurva (Roxb. ex Lindl.) Markgr., Vinca alba Noronha [13]

Vernacular Names

Malaysia Susun Kelapa, Susok Ayam
English East India Rosebay, Nero's Crown, Wax Flower, Crape Jasmine
China Cong Ban Ghou Ya Hua
Indonesia Mondokaki, Bunga wari (Java); Kembang Mantega, Kembang Susu, Bunga Manila, Bunga Susong (Sumatra); Bunga Nyingin (Nusa Tenggara)
Thailand Mai Photo, Pud
Philippines Pandakaking-tsina
India Candni, Tagar (Hindi); Kottubale, Nandibatly (Kannada); Nantyarvattam (Malayalam); Nandivrksah (Sanskrit); Nantiyavattam, Atukkunantiyarvattai (Tamil); Gandhitafarapu, Nandicardhanamu (Telagu)
Portugal Maca de Adao. [2][3][5]

General Information

Description

Tabernaemontana coronaria is a member of the Apocynaceae family., It is a glabrous, evergreen shrub that reaches up to 3m high. The bark is silvery grey and has milky latex. The leaves are simple, opposite, elliptic or elliptic-lanceolatye, sweetly fragrant in 1-8 flowered cymes at the bifurcations of the branches. The fruit is a follicle types measures 2.5-7.5cm long, ribbed and curved, orange or bright red within, narrowed into a slender curved beak. The seeds are dull brown, minutely pitted, irregular, and enclosed in a red pulpy aril. [2]

Plant Part Used

Roots, flowers and latex. [1][2]

Chemical Constituents

3-oxo-coronaridine; 3-oxo-voacangine; 4-hydroxybenzoic acid; 19,20-dihydroervahanine A; 19S-heyneanine hydroxyindolenine; (20 S)-19,20-dihydrocondylocarpine; apparicine; coronaridine; descarbomethoxyvoacamine; dregamine; ervatinine; gentisic acid; heyneanine; isovoacristic hydrochloride;lahoricine; mehracine; salicylic acid;  stafinine; tabernaemontanine; tabersonine; vanillic acid; voacamine; voacangine; voacangine hydroxyindolenine; voacristine; voacristine hydroxyindolenine; vobasine; ervatamin A-C[1][4][6][7][8][11][12]

Traditional Uses

Traditionally the roots of T. divaricata is considered acrid, bitter, thermogenic, anodyne, astringent, vermifuge and tonic. The flowers and latex are cooling with fragrant and anti-inflammatory respectively [1][2]The latex being anti-inflammatory in nature is often applied on wounds to promote healing. It is also used in treating the stye [5].

The plant had been used effectively to treat various forms of ophthalmia like acute and chronic conjunctivitis where the juice, squeezed out from the leaves, is dropped into the affected eye. A poultice made from the leaves is applied over mastitis and pyoderma and the decoction can be used in high blood pressure treatment [2][5].

The bitter roots are used to treat diarrhoea, sore throat, bone fracture and relieve toothache. It also used in combination with other herbs to treat  intestinal worm infestation, kidney problems, urinary stones and tumour.[5]

Pre-Clinical Data

Pharmacology

Cytotoxicity

The indole alkaloid, vVaocristine, isolated from T. divaricata exhibited cytostatic and cytotoxic activities detected in the culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and occurs exclusively in growing cells. The lesions induced are probably of the adducts type which is reparable in the wild-type. [9][10]

Toxicities

No documentation

Teratogenic effects

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation

Geriatrics

No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

Contraindications

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

References

  1. Khare CP. Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary. Berlin: Springer Verlag;  2007. p. 641.
  2. Warrier PK., Nambiar VPK., Ramakutty C. Indian Medicinal Plants: A compendium of 500 species Volume 5. Orient Blackswan; 1966. p. 232.
  3. Hanelf P., Buttner R. Mansfeld’s Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops. Berlin: Springer Verlag; 2001 pg. 1740.
  4. Nellis DW. Poisonous Plants and Animals of Florida and the Caribbean. Sarasota: Pineapple Press;  1997. p. 114-115
  5. Hembing. Ensiklopedia Milenium Tumbuhan Berkhasiat Obat Indonesia. Jakarta: Prestasi Insan Indonesia;  2000. 125-128
  6. Atta-ur-Rahman, Alvi KA, Muzaffar A. Isolation and 1H/13C-NMR Studies on 19,20-Dihydrocondylocarpine: An Alkaloid from the Leaves of Ervatamia coronaria and Alstonia scholaris. Planta Med. 1986 Aug;(4):325-6.
  7. Sharma P, Cordell GA. Heyneanine hydroxyindolenine, a new indole alkaloid from Ervatamia coronaria var. plena. J Nat Prod. 1988 May-Jun;51(3):528-31.
  8. Henriques AT, Melo AA, Moreno PR, Ene LL, Henriques JA, Schapoval EE. Ervatamia coronaria: chemical constituents and some pharmacological activities. J Ethnopharmacol. 1996 Jan;50(1):19-25.
  9. Melo AA, Querol CB, Henriques AT, Henriques JA. Cytostatic, cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of voacristine, an indole alkaloid in wild-type and repair-deficient yeasts. Mutat Res. 1986 Jul;171(1):17-24.
  10. Henriques JA, Moreno PR, Von Poser GL, Querol CC, Henriques AT. Genotoxic effect of alkaloids. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 1991;86 Suppl 2:71-4.
  11. Chakrabarti C, Biswas S, Kundu S, Sundd M, Jagannadham MV, Dattagupta JK. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of ervatamin B and C, two thiol proteases from Ervatamia coronaria. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 1999 May;55(Pt 5):1074-5.
  12. Nallamsetty S, Kundu S, Jagannadham MV. Purification and biochemical characterization of a highly active cysteine protease ervatamin A from the latex of Ervatamia coronaria. J Protein Chem. 2003 Jan;22(1):1-13.
  13. The Plant List. Ver 1.1. Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R.Br. ex Roem. & Schult. [homepage on the Internet]. c2013 [updated 2012 Mar 23; 2015 Jun 15]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-200675 

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