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Gardenia jasminoides Ellis

Synonyms

Gardenia augusta (Linn.) Merr., Gardenia grandiflora Lour., Gardenia radicans Thunb., Gardenia florida Linn., Genipa florida Baill., Genipa radicans Baill., Varneria augusta Linn., Warneria augusta Linn, Mussaenda chinensis Lour [1-3]

Vernacular Names

Malaysia Bunga Cina
English Cape Jasmine, Cape Jassamine, Common Gardenia, Gardenia
China Hi Zhu, Zhi Zi, Chih-tzu, Huang Chi Tzu
Indonesia Kaca Piring, Perciring, Cepiring, Ceplok Piring (Java); Meulu Bruek, Rajaputih (Aceh); Kacapiring, Sangkapa (Malay); Jempiring (Bali)
Thailand Phut Chiin, Phut Son, Khae Thawaa
Philippines Rosal
Vietnam Danh Danh
India Gandharaaja, Karinga
Korea Chijanamu
France Gardenia
Germany Kap-Gardenie, Kap-Jasmine, Jasminglanz
Russia Gardenia [1][6]

General Information

Description

Gardenia jasminoides is a member of the Rubiaceae family. It is a shrub that can reach up to 3m high. The leaves are opposite, subsessile to petiolate  measuring 5mm long, densely puberulent or shortly pilosulous. The leaf-blade is thinly leathery, oblanceolate to elliptic measures 3-25cm x 1.5-8cm. The upper surface is shiny and glabrous; the undersurface is puberulent to glabrous; the base is cuneate to acute and the apex is acute to acuminate. There are 8-15 pairs of secondary veins. The flowers are solitary at terminals with peduncles measure 1-10mm long with a fragrant smell. The corolla is white to pale yellow. The fruit is yellow or orange yellow, ovoid to subglobose, measuring 1.5-7cm x 1.2-2cm, with 5-9 longitudinal ridges. The seeds are suborbicular measure 3.5 x 3mm. [8]

Plant Part Used

Roots, flowers and fruits. [3-7]

Chemical Constituents

Acetylgeniposide; cerbinal; crocetin; crocin; D-mannitol; deacetylasperulosidic acid methyl ester; gardenolic acid; gardenoside; gardoside (8,10-dehydrologanic acid); genipin; geniposide; geniposidic acid; gentiobioside; oleanolic acid; shanzhiside; scandoside methyl ester; picrocrocinic acid;caffeic acid; sinapic acid stigmasterol. [4][9][10]

Traditional Uses

G. jasminoides is believed to be bitter and cold in character and has the following properties: disperse heat, purges fire, cools the blood, and removes toxins. The whole plant is cathartic, antispasmodic, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, external-antispetic and antiperiodic. The root is antidysenteric. The fruit is a diuretic, cholagogue and anti-inflammatory agent. [3-7]

Gastrointestinal diseases

G. jasminoides is used to treat aphthous ulcer, dyspepsia, gastric hyperacidity, vomiting, and constipation. The fruit is specifically used to treat cholestasis, jaundice, biliousness and haematemesis. Tea made from the roots and fruits treats dysentery. [3-7]

Inflammatory diseases

As an anti-inflammatory agent G. jasminoides had been used for abscesses, sprains, swelling and pains of bruises. The decoction of the root and fruit is used for fever. [4][6][7]

Cardiovascular diseases

The Indonesians believed G. jasminoides can strengthen the heart and treats palpitation. The fruit possesses the ability to disperse accumulated blood in bruises and stop bleeding. [6][7]

Other uses

The roots of G. jasminoides had been reported to treat nervous disorders while the fruit in fidgets and insomnia. The fruit is believed to have sedative properties. G. jasminoides had been used in the treatment of oliguria and diabetes mellitus. [5-7]

Pre-Clinical Data

Pharmacology

Antihyperlipidaemic activity

Crocin and crocetin isolated from the fruit of G. jasminoides proved to be a pancreatic lipase inhibitor. They were found to significantly inhibit the increase of serum triglyceride level, total cholesterol  level and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level in hyperlipidaemic mice. [11]

Antioxidant activity

Crocin is a water soluble carotinoid isolated form the fruit of G. jasminoides. The purified form (>99.6%) exhibited antioxidant activity at a concentration of up to 40ppm. This is comparable to BHA (Butylated hydroxyanisone) at 20ppm. [12][13]

Antiangiogenic activity

The ethanol extract of the fruit of G. jaminoides yielded an iridoid glucoside, geniposide. This compound showed anti-angiogenic activity in a dose dependent manner. It also has inhibitory effect on the growth of the transformed NIH3T3 (mouse embryonic fibroblast) cell line. [14]

Neuroprotective activity

The compound geniposide from G. jaminoides exhibits the ability to protect hippocampal neurons from damage induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation. Evidence showed that it seems to have greater protective effects on the granular cell layer than on the pyramidal cell layer. [15]

Antigastritic activity

The extract of G. jaminoides and two of its isolated components (ursolic acid and genipin) show the capabilities of neutralizing acid, antioxidant activity and inhibiting H. pyloriG. jasminoides also showed cytotoxic activity against AGS and SUN638 gastric cancer cells. Genipin and ursolic acid were found to inhibit HCl/ethanol-induced gastric lesions. [16]

Antiinflammatory activity

Ethanol extract of the fruit of G. jaminoides together with two compounds (genipin and geniposide) isolated from it showed antiinflammatory activity. Genipin appears to be more potent than geniposide. [17]

Toxicities

No documentation

Teratogenic effects

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation

Geriatrics

No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

Contraindications

Contraindications

No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

References

  1. Seidemann J. World Spice Plants: Economic usage, Botany, Taxononmy, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2005, pg. 162
  2. Merrill E. Loureiro’s “Flora Cochinchinensis”, Transaction, American Philosophical Soceity, Philadelphia 1935 Vol. 24(2):367
  3. Hanelt P, Buttner R. Mansfeld’s Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops, Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 2001; 1774
  4. Cambie RC, Ash J. Fijian Medicinal Plants CSIRO Australia .1994; 1990
  5. Khare CP. Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 2007; 281
  6. Wijayakusuma HM. Ensiklopedia Milenium Tumbuhan Berkhasiat Obat Indonesia Prestasi Insan Indonesia, Jakarta. 2000; 71-72
  7. Foster S, Chongxi Y. Herbal Emissaries: Bringing Chinese Herbs to the West. 1992; 186
  8. e-Flora of China. Available from: http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=200022091 [Accessed on 23rd May 2013]
  9. Hiroyuki I,  Yoshio T, Hiroshi N. Two new iridoid glucosides from Gardenia jasminoides fruits. Phytochemistry. 1974; 13(10):2219–2224
  10. Pfister S, Meyer P, Steck A, and Pfander H. Article Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Carotenoid−Glycosyl Esters in Gardenia Fruits (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) and Saffron (Crocus sativus Linne). J. Agric. Food Chem. 1996; 44 (9): 2612–2615
  11. In-Ah L, Jin Hee L, Nam-In B, Dong-Hyun K. Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Crocin Isolated from the Fructus of Gardenia jasminoides and Its Metabolite Crocetin. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2005;28(11):2106-2110
  12. Thanh QP, François C, Edward F, Van HT and Marie-Rose VC. Antioxidant Properties of Crocin from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis and Study of the Reactions of Crocin with Linoleic Acid and Crocin with Oxygen J. Agric. Food Chem. 2000; 48 (5):1455–1461
  13. Yang C,    Hao Z,    Xi T,    Can Z,    Le C,    Ying L,    Lin J,    Hong-Xiang Y,  Chu C. Antioxidant potential of crocins and ethanol extracts of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis and Crocus sativus L. A relationship investigation between antioxidant activity and crocin contents. Food Chemistry. 2008; 109(3):484–492
  14. Hye-Jin K, Sanghyun L, Kuk-Hyun S, Byung-Chul K, Chang-Jin L, Eun-Hee P. Geniposide, an Anti-angiogenic compound from the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides. Planta Med. 2004; 70(5): 467-469
  15. Pyeongjae L, Jongseok L, Sang Yoon C, Sang Eun L, Sanghyun L, Dongwook S. Geniposide from Gardenia jasminoides attenuates neuronal cell death in oxygen and glucose deprivation-exposed rat hippocampal slice culture. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2006; 29(1):174-176
  16. Je-Hyuk L, Dong-Ung L, Choon-Sik J. Gardenia jasminoides Ellis ethanol extract and its constituents reduce the risks of gastritis and reverse gastric lesions in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2009; 47(6):1127–1131
  17. Hye-Jin K, Kyung-Hwa L, Hyun-Joo J, Eun-Hee P. Anti-inflammatory evaluation of gardenia extract, geniposide and genipin. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2006; 103(3):496–500

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