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Cynometra cauliflora Linn.


Cynometra acutifolia S. Vidal, Cynometra cauliflora var. elongatis Hassk., Cynometra cauliflora var. subsessilis Hassk.  [2]

Vernacular Names

Malaysia  Namnam, Puki Anjing, Salah Nama, Buah Katak Puru
Indonesia  Namuam (Java), Pukienschyn (Ambon), Kapi Anjing (Sunda)
Thailand  Nang-ai (Bangkok);  Amphawa (Central); Hima (Pattani)       [1][2][3]

General Information


Cynometra cauliflora is a member of the Fabaceae family. It is a small tree that can reach up to 15m high. It has a dense crown with zig-zag twigs. The leaves come in one pair of leaflets with petiole between 2-8mm long. The leaflets are ovate-oblong 5.5-16.5cm x 1.5-5.5cm, asymmetrical, sessile and drooping. The inflorescence is cauliflorous, 4-5 small racemes crowded together on hard knots on the trunk right down to ground level. The flowers are white with pinkish-white sepals. The fruits (pod) are kidney shaped measuring 3-9cm x 1-4cm. The outer surface is rugose, brownish-green, fleshy and handing from the trunk. It contains one seed that is flattened, kidney shaped and brown. [4][5]

Plant Part Used

Fruits and seed oil. [4]

Chemical Constituents

No documentation

Traditional Use

The plant is used to treat renal calculi. The seed oil is used for treatment of skin diseases. [2][3]

Pre-Clinical Data


Cytotoxic activity

The methanol extract of the whole fruit of C.cauliflora proved to be cytotoxic towards HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukaemia) cells by inducing cells into apoptotic cell death mode. However, it is less effective towards NIH/3T3 cells (normal mouse fibroblast cells). [6]


No documentation

Teratogenic effects

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation


No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation


Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation



No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation


  1. Hanelt P. Mansfeld’s Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops, Springer Berlin 2001 pg. 574.
  2. Lim TK. Cynometra cauliflora. Edible Medicinal And Non-Medicinal Plants: Springer Netherlands; 2012. p. 614-6.
  3. Herbal Medicine Research Centre. Compendium of Medicinal Plants Used in Malaysia Volume 1. Institute for Medical Research Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur; 2002. p. 241.
  4. PROSEA. Available from Accessed on 13th November 2012.
  5. Ecocrop. Available from Accessed on 26th May 2014
  6. T-Johari SAT, Nashriyah M, Siti-Aishah AB, A Aziz MY, Afnani A, Abdul Manaf A. Cytotoxicity, Antiproliferative Effects, and Apoptosis Induction of Methanolic Extract of Cynometra cauliflora Linn. Whole Fruit on Human Promyelocytic Leukemia HL-60 Cells Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2012 (2012).

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