image
Conservation

Compilation of herbal plants (description, geographical distribution, taxonomy, line drawings), biodiversity and herbarium.

Read More
image
Research & Publication

Description of herbal and T&CM research, searchable publication and process from medicinal plant discovery to clinical trial in producing a high-quality registered herbal drug.

Read More
 
Traditional & Complementary Medicine (T&CM)

 

Definition and description of therapies, policy, training and education, research in the practise of (T&CM) and integrated medicine system.           

Read More

 

News Update

Announcement & Advertisement

Forthcoming Events

International Conference on Traditional Medicine and Phytochemistry 2021

From Mon, 12. July 2021 Until Wed, 14. July 2021

Asian Symposium on Medicinal Plants and Spices XVII (2020)

From Tue, 17. August 2021 Until Thu, 19. August 2021

Cassia fistula L.

Botanical Name

Cassia fistula L. 

Synonyms

Bactyrilobium fistula Willd., Cassia bonplandiana DC., Cassia excelsa Kunth, Cassia fistuloides Collad., Cassia rhombifolia Roxb., Cathartocarpus excelsus G.Don, Cathartocarpus fistula Pers., Cathartocarpus fistuloides (Collad.) G.Don, Cathartocarpus rhombifolius G.Don [2] 

Family

Leguminosae [2]

Vernacular Names

Malaysia Bereksa, tengguli, rajah kayu, dulang [5] 
English Golden showers, midas tree, purging cassia, purging fistula, Indian laburnum, golden rain, pudding-pipe tree [3]
Indonesia Keyok, klohur, klohor, peyok, piyok, tangguli, tengguli, trengguli (Javanese); bobondelan, bumbungdelan, bondel, tanggoli (Sundan) [5]
Thailand Kun, raja pruk, chaiya pruk [5].

Description

Cassia fistula is a member of the Leguminosae family. It is a perennial tree that could reach up to 20 m high. The bark is smooth, coloured grey; stems erect; and branchlets ridged with corky spots. The leaves are 1-pinnately compound, 15-60 cm long, 3-8 paired leaflets with no terminal leaflet. The leaflets are ovate to lanceolate, apex acuminate and base cuneate with stipules subulate measuring 1-2 mm long. The inflorescences are pendulous racemes and 20-40 cm long. The bracts and bracteoles are subulate cordate. The flowers are showy and symmetry but slightly bilateral, have five petals, pale to bright yellow, ovate elliptic to orange or red. The sepals are five, free, overlapping, unequal in size, coloured brown or pink and villous. The legumes are cylindrical, 1.5-2.5 cm in diameter and 30-60 cm long, black, hirsute or subglabrous and divided into compartments. The seeds are numerous [1].

Distribution

C. fistula is native of India and is distributed in tropical Central and South America, Southeast Asia, Northern Australia and the Pacific Islands. It has been introduced into North America as ornamentals. [1]

Plant Use

The spread of the C. fistula tree from its native origins i.e. India and Sri Lanka from ancient times had been attributed to its varied medicinal uses. Today, this plant is planted as shade tree by many townships especially in the tropical region. 

The ripe pod and seeds are used as laxative, as a remedy for malaria, blood poisoning, anthrax and dysentery. The fruit pulp is a remedy for renal stones and a vermifuge. The bark had been used for fractures and tropical ulcers. The heartwood is an anthelmintic while the roots help in purifying wounds and ulcers [4].

Toxic Parts

Fruits and seeds [1] [3].

Toxin

The fruit pulp of C. fistula contains emodin glycoside which is an anthraquinone. This is known to cause digestive tract irritation [1] [3].

Risk Management

No documentation

Clinical Findings

Clinical signs include nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, colic and dehydration. C. fistula causes only digestive tract and does not cause muscular weakness. Emodin can also cause a change in the colour of urine test which is yellowish brown in acid urine or violet in basic urine. [1] [3]

Management

Treatment is directed towards alleviating the digestive tract effects. This may necessitate the administration of intravenous rehydration therapy, antiemetics and electrolyte replacement in severe cases especially in children  [1] [3].

References

  1. Burrows GE, Tyri RJ. Toxic plants of North America. Ames, Iowa: John Wiley & Sons; 2013. p. 532-533.
  2. The Plant List. Cassia fistula L. Ver 1.1. c2013 [cited 2014 August 27]. Available from: http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/ild-1022
  3. Nelson LS, Shih RD, Balick MJ. Handbook of poisonous and injurious plants. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 2007. p. 110-112.
  4. Schmelzer GH, Gurib-Fakim A. plant resources of Tropical Africa Volume 11– Medicinal Plants. Wageningen: PROTA; 2008. p. 146-148.
  5. Burkill IH. A dictionary economic products of the Malay Peninsula Volume 1. Kuala Lumpur: Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives of Malaysia:1966. p.481-482.

Explore Further

Consumer Data

Consumer data including medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs and interactions and depletions.                                    

Read More
Professional Data

Professional data organized into medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs, T&CM herbs, formulas, health conditions, interactions and depletions.

Read More
International Data

We offer International linkages to provide extensive content pertaining to many facets of T&CM as well as Integrated Medicine. Please register for access.    

Read More