The Pharmaceutical Forms of Early Pharmacy in Iran


Hassan Farsam


Traditional & Complementary Medicine Exhibition 2007 (TCME 2007), Putra World Trade Centre (PWTC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia




Prehistoric knowledge, Pharmaceutical Forms


Investigation on the early pharmaceutical forms in Iran received little attention. In this study the early pharmaceutical forms in Iran has been put into consideration. The prehistoric knowledge of the inhabitants of Iran in medicine and pharmacy has been in close relation with medico-pharmaceutical beliefs of Mesopotamia, India, Greece, Egypt and other neighboring nations. The Silk Road and other trade roads facilitated the transaction of drugs and development of Pharmacy. In the clay tablets of Assyrian and the Ebers Papyri, several drug forms such as gargles, fumigants and colliery are mentioned. In Avesta, The Holy Book of Zoroastrians, several medical disciplines and various plants and their therapeutic properties are described. Probably the first dispensary was established in Jundishapur. The Aqrabadhin (drug formulary) is among the oldest forms of pharmaceutical literature. In this type of treatises, the pharmaceutical forms are organized. The ¿rst aqrabadhin probably published by Shapur Sahl (d.869), the head of Jundishapur hospital. Razi and Avicenna described several drug forms. Jurjani (d 1148) in his famous book “Zakhyreh kharazmshahi” (The Saurus) in Farsi language described more then thirty pharmaceutical forms. In later years Samarqandi (d 12220) discussed clearly more than thirty drug formsin his formulary. Shirazi (ibn Iyas, 13th cent.) also described the same amount of pharmaceutical forms. Muhammad ZamanTunkabuni in his book (Tuhfat ul Muminin” (the gift of tow Mumins, 1669) mentioned about forty drug forms. The same drug forms are almost rewritten in other agrabadhin such as Makhzan ul advieh (the treasure of drugs). In the present paper more than forty pharmaceutical forms are introduced with their proposed equivalent synonyms in English version. Aside from the historical importance as a cultural heritage, it is one of the valuable fields of medico-pharmaceutical research in order to be studied under their aboriginal forms for further scientific evaluation.