Antifungal Agents from Sea Cucumber, Holothuria Atra (Jaeger)


Darah Ibrahim and Ibrahim Che Omar, School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia.


Trends in Traditional Medicine Research, Proceedings of the International Conference on the Use of Traditional Medicine & Other Natural Products in Health Care




Holothuria atra, Holothutroidea; atratoxins; antifungal agent


Three types of extract known as atratoxins A, B, and B, have been extracted from Holothuria atra and these toxins exhibited significant activities against various species of pathogenic fungi which causes mycosis in human and animals. The microscopic observation revealed that atratoxin B, inhibited fungal growth and is able to induce structural degeneration beyond repair in a large proportion of the cells, and responsible for preventing differentiation of hyphal elements into forming conidia and also is able to prevent the germination of the conidia.