Limnophila aromatica (Lamk) Merr.

Limnophila aromatica (Lamk) Merr.




Gratiola aromatica (Lamk) Pers., Limnophila punctata Blume, Limnophila gratissima Blume.

Vernacular Names

Malaysia Beremi, kerak-kerak
Indonesia Kehkehan (Sundanese), daun kardemom, selaseh ayer kecil (Ambonese)
Philippines Angangi (Bontok)
Papua New Guinea Poikehkeh (Wapi), ginibok (Keepaukee)
Thailand Phak khayaeng (Central), phak phaa (Northern)
Vietnam Rau ng[oom]

Geographical Distributions

From India and Sri Lanka to Indo-China, southern China, Japan, Taiwan, throughout South-East Asia and northern Australia.


The leaves are decussate or in whorls of 3, ovate-lance-shaped to lance-shaped with size of 10-55 mm x 3-15 mm. Their margins are crenate to serrate-dentate, hairless to densely and minutely glandular. The veins are pinnately arranged and sessile.

The flowers are solitary and axillary or a few to many-flowered, terminal or axillary raceme, up to 15 cm long. The pedicel is 5-20 mm long. The two bracteoles are 1.5-2 mm long. The sepal is 4.5-7 mm long, hairy, striate at maturity. Its petal is 10.5-13.5 mm long, pale pink, outside is finely glandular while the inside is densely villous. The posterior lobe is notched at the extremity. The posterior stamens are 2.5 mm long and with long weak hairs while the anterior stamens are 4 mm long and hairless.

 The 5-6 mm long brown capsule is broadly ellipsoid and compressed.

Ecology / Cultivation

L. aromatica grows in shallow ponds or marshy localities, from sea-level up to 1000 m altitude.

Line Drawing / Photograph



  1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 12(2). 1998, Unesco.