Compilation of herbal plants (description, geographical distribution, taxonomy, line drawings), biodiversity and herbarium.

Read More
Research & Publication

Description of herbal and T&CM research, searchable publication and process from medicinal plant discovery to clinical trial in producing a high-quality registered herbal drug.

Read More
Traditional & Complementary Medicine (T&CM)


Definition and description of therapies, policy, training and education, research in the practise of (T&CM) and integrated medicine system.           

Read More


News Update

Announcement & Advertisement

Forthcoming Events

Annual Congress on Traditional Medicine

From Wed, 12. May 2021 Until Thu, 13. May 2021

5th International Conference on Medical and Health Informatics (ICMHI 2021

From Fri, 14. May 2021 Until Sun, 16. May 2021

International Conference on Traditional Medicine and Phytochemistry 2021

From Mon, 12. July 2021 Until Wed, 14. July 2021

Asian Symposium on Medicinal Plants and Spices XVII (2020)

From Tue, 17. August 2021 Until Thu, 19. August 2021






Rosa damascena Miller, Rosa gallica L. var. damascena Voss, Rosa damascena Miller var. trigintipetala (Dieck) Koehne.

Vernacular Names

Malaysia Bunga ayer mawar, ros, gul.
English Damask rose, pink damask rose.
Indonesia Kembang eros, bunga ros.
Cambodia Kolaab.
Laos Kuhlaab.
Thailand Kulaap-on (Northern), kulaap mon (Central), yee sun (Bangkok).
Vietnam Huong.
French Rose de damas, rose de tous les mois, rose de puteaux

Geographical Distributions

This species is only known from cultivation and its exact origin is not known. It probably originated as a hybrid in the Anatolian region in Turkey, but semi-wild plants (escapes from cultivation) are also found in the Caucasus, Syria and Morocco. It is known from ancient times and was introduced early from Turkey into Europe and the Middle East, where Iran has been a centre of rose cultivation and rose oil production for centuries. In the Balkans and the Mediterranean it is cultivated as a source of rose oil. The most important growing areas are in Bulgaria, Turkey, southern Russia and Morocco. Elsewhere it is mainly grown as an ornamental. In Southeast Asia it is only occasionally cultivated as an ornamental.


This is a robust, erect, multi-stemmed and branched shrub up to 1-2 m tall, with well-developed and extensive root system. Prickles are usually many, unequal, straight to slightly curved, reddish-brown when young and grey when old.

Leaves are arranged alternate, compound with 5-7 leaflets and waxy. The stipules are almost entire and elongated. The stalk is with red-brown hairs while leaflet is elliptical size 2-7 cm x 1.5-5 cm. Their margin is serrate, usually hairy but not glandular on the underside.

Inflorescence is a terminal raceme or composed of indeterminate axis with the determinate, bearing 3-10 flowers, rarely more. The flowers are up to 8 cm in diametre, often double, very fragrant and usually pinkish. Stalk is up to 7 cm long, with many glandular bristles. They are cup-like glandular-bristly on the outside but hairy on the inside. The sepals are glandular, triangular and broadly cuspidate, abruptly bent during pollination, falling off afterwards. The petals are red to white, preferably rosy-pink to rosy-red usually 20-30-flowered with 5-10 deformed ones. The stamens are 100-120; pistils numerous, styles free and hairy.

Fruit is an ovoid hip, up to 2.5 cm long, fleshy, bristly, light to dark red, 1-3-seeded .

Seed is rounded triangular, 3-5mm long and brownish.

Ecology / Cultivation

Cv. group Damascena is adaptable to a wide range of environmental conditions. In general a mild climate is preferred with no extremes of temperature and long periods of warm, sunny weather and an evenly distributed rainfall. In Kazanlik (Bulgaria), the major cultivation area, an average spring temperature of 5-15°C is considered as optimum. Low night temperatures of 10-12°C during flowering inhibit oil synthesis, but night temperatures up to 20°C increases it. Regular rainfall is important, especially in spring and early summer, and a daily relative humidity in May-June of 70% is considered optimum. Waterlogging should be avoided, but damask roses can withstand waterlogging to a considerable extent. Hot dry periods during flowering rapidly reduce oil yield by evaporation. Shade is inimical to flowering in Bulgaria, but in India, where temperatures in the sun are higher, shade is essential. Frost during early vegetative growth or bud formation causes extensive damage. Mature plants are frost resistant but pruned ones require protection in areas with severe winter frosts. A deep, fertile loam (pH 6-7.5) is most suitable for commercial rose growing but climate is more important than soil type. In India, alkaline saline soils of pH 8-9 are well suited for damask rose growing.

Line Drawing / Photograph


Read More

  1)  Essential Oil


  1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 19: Essential-oil plants.

Explore Further

Consumer Data

Consumer data including medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs and interactions and depletions.                                    

Read More
Professional Data

Professional data organized into medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs, T&CM herbs, formulas, health conditions, interactions and depletions.

Read More
International Data

We offer International linkages to provide extensive content pertaining to many facets of T&CM as well as Integrated Medicine. Please register for access.    

Read More