Celastrus paniculatus Willd.

Celastrus paniculatus Willd.




Celastrus multiflorus Roxb., Celastrus australis Harv. & F. Muell. ex. F. Muell.

Vernacular Names


Sila (Javanese).


Bilogo (Tagalog).


Kra thong laai.


D[aa]y s[aw]ng m[as]u.

Geographical Distributions

Celastrus pani­culatus is widely distributed from India, Burma (Myanmar) to southern China, Taiwan and throughout Southeast Asia (except Borneo) to Australia and New Caledonia.


Celastrus pani­culatus is a climbing, deciduous, usually dioecious shrub that can reach up to 10 m tall. Its stem is up to 25 cm in diametre, with cylindrical branchlets and hairy.

The leaves are arranged spirally, simple, elliptical to suborbicu­lar to oblong, measure 5-15 cm x 2.5-6 cm, with wedge-shaped base, obtuse or rounded, acute at apex, acuminate, obtuse, rarely notched at the extremity, with remotely crenulate margin, elevated midrib and smooth.

The petiole is 0.5-1.5 cm long with small stipules. The inflorescence is an axillary or panicle termi­nal, usually thrice to multi-compound, spreading, (2-)5-10(-20) cm long and with 0.6-1 cm long peduncle. Its flowers are unisexual, 5-merous, pale green­ish, with 1.5-3.5 mm long pedicel, accrescent to 3-6 mm and articulate at the base. The sepal is bell-shaped, per­sistent, with semi-orbicular lobes, short-ciliate and it measures about 1 mm x 1.5 mm. The petals are oblong to obovate-oblong, ob­tuse, entire, and measure 2.5-3 mm x 1-1.5 mm. The disk is cupular and obscurely 5-lobed. In the male flower, stamens are about 3 mm long, with columnar pistil and about 1 mm long while in the fe­male flowers, staminodes are about 1 mm long, with 2-2.5 mm long pistil, superior ovary, spherical, (in)completely 3-celled, ovules 1-2 per cell, with colum­nar style and 3-lobed stigma.

The fruit is a nearly spherical capsule, 3-valved loculicidally with broad-elliptical valves, measuring 5-10 mm x 5-8 mm and 3-6-seeded. The seed is ellipsoid, measures 3.5-5 mm x 2-3 mm, enveloped by a fleshy orange to crimson aril, yellowish to reddish brown, smooth or with obscure areoles. The albumen is copious, with thin cotyle­dons and broadly spathulate. The seedling is with epigeal germination.

Ecology / Cultivation

Celastrus paniculatus is mainly found in thickets at 200-1800 m altitude.

Line Drawing / Photograph



  1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No.12(2): Medicinal and poisonous plants 2.