Dillenia excelsa (Jack) Gilg

Dillenia excelsa (Jack) Gilg




Wormia excelsa Jack, Wor­mia oblonga Wallich ex Hook.f. & Thomson, Wormia tomentella Martelli.

Vernacular Names


Simpoh ungu (Peninsular), simpoh laki (Sabah), simpur bukit, simpoh wangi        (Sarawak).


Sempur segel (Sundanese, Java), simpur talang (Sumatra), kendikara (Kalimantan).


San-dam (Nakhon Si Tham­marat), saen (Songkhla).



Geographical Distributions

Dillenia excelsa is distributed throughout Peninsular Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Bangka, western Java, Borneo and the Philippines (Balabac Island).


Dillenia excelsa is a medium-sized to fairly large evergreen tree that can reach up to 40 m tall, with its bole branchless for up to 20 m and measures up to 75 cm in diametre. The buttresses are absent or small, with fissured to papery scaly bark surface and greyish-brown.

The leaves are elliptical to oblong, measuring 15-30 cm x 7-10 cm, with slightly un­dulate to dentate or entire margin and petiole is up to 5 cm long.

The flowers are 7-10 cm in diametre, with 5 sepals and bright yellow petals. The stamens are in 2 distinct groups. The in­ner ones are larger, with purplish anthers, without acu­men and open by pores.

The fruit is dehiscent.

The seed is en­closed at the base by red aril.

Ecology / Cultivation

Dillenia excelsa is variable in hairiness and is subdivided into three varieties. It occurs commonly in lowland forests, in swampy ar­eas and on hillsides. The dark reddish wood is comparatively heavy with a density of 650-1080 kg/m3 at 15% moisture content and more durable than in other species.

Line Drawing / Photograph



  1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 5(2): Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers.