Compilation of herbal plants (description, geographical distribution, taxonomy, line drawings), biodiversity and herbarium.

Read More
Research & Publication

Description of herbal and T&CM research, searchable publication and process from medicinal plant discovery to clinical trial in producing a high-quality registered herbal drug.

Read More
Traditional & Complementary Medicine (T&CM)


Definition and description of therapies, policy, training and education, research in the practise of (T&CM) and integrated medicine system.           

Read More


News Update

Announcement & Advertisement

Forthcoming Events

International Conference on Biotechnology and Healthcare

From Mon, 7. December 2020 Until Tue, 8. December 2020

International Conference on Malay Medical Manuscript

From Tue, 15. December 2020 Until Wed, 16. December 2020

International Conference on Natural Medicine and Nutrition (ICNMN) 2020

From Thu, 17. December 2020 Until Fri, 18. December 2020

1st Global Summit on Generic Drugs and Quality Control

From Fri, 22. January 2021 Until Sat, 23. January 2021

International Conference on Natural Products and Drug Discovery (ICNPDD) 2021

From Thu, 11. February 2021 Until Fri, 12. February 2021

Metabolic evidence that deficiencies of vitamin B-12 (cobalamin), folate, and vitamin B-6 occur commonly in elderly people


Joosten E, van den Berg A, Riezler R




Am J Clin Nutr


Measurements of the serum concentrations of the metabolites homocysteine, cystathionine, methylmalonic acid, and 2-methylcitric acid, which accumulates when vitamin B-12-, folate-, and vitamin B-6- dependent enzymatic reactions are impaired, should provide a better indication of intracellular deficiency of these vitamins. We measured the serum concentration of these vitamins and the four metabolites in 99 healthy young people, 64 healthy elderly subjects, and 286 elderly hospitalized patients. A low serum vitamin B-12 concentration was found in 6% and 5%, low folate in 5% and 19%, and low vitamin B-6 in 9% and 51%, and one or more metabolites were elevated in 63% and 83% of healthy elderly subjects and elderly hospitalized patients, respectively. These results strongly suggest that the prevalence of tissue deficiencies of vitamin B-12, folate, and vitamin B-6 as demonstrated by the elevated metabolite concentrations is substantially higher than that estimated by measuring concentrations of the vitamins.

Explore Further

Consumer Data

Consumer data including medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs and interactions and depletions.                                    

Read More
Professional Data

Professional data organized into medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs, T&CM herbs, formulas, health conditions, interactions and depletions.

Read More
International Data

We offer International linkages to provide extensive content pertaining to many facets of T&CM as well as Integrated Medicine. Please register for access.    

Read More