Accelerated development of riboflavin deficiency by treatment with chlorpromazine.


Pelliccione N, Pinto J, Huang YP




Biochem Pharmacol


The present study was undertaken to determine whether treatment with chlorpromazine accelerates the depletion of tissue stores of flavin adenine dinucleotide during dietary riboflavin deficiency. These investigations derived their impetus from earlier findings that low doses of chlorpromazine in rats fed abundant riboflavin increase urinary riboflavin excretion and reduce hepatic flavin stores. From 6 to 10 days after beginning to feed on a riboflavin-deficient diet, rats treated with chlorpromazine, 2 mg/kg body weight twice daily, had approximately twice the urinary riboflavin excretion of that of pair-fed saline-treated controls. When the riboflavin-deficient diets and chlorpromazine treatments were extended for 3 weeks and the animals killed, FAD levels in liver, kidney, and heart were markedly lower in drug-treated than in saline-treated animals. When studies were extended for 7 weeks, tissue FAD levels in saline-treated animals declined further and were equal to those of chlorpromazine- treated rats after only 3 weeks of dietary deficiency. Thus, chlorpromazine treatment accelerated urinary riboflavin loss and accelerated tissue depletion of FAD levels during dietary riboflavin deficiency. Brain levels of FAD by contrast were relatively resistant to both dietary riboflavin withdrawal and treatment with chlorpromazine. Subsequent studies showed that urinary riboflavin excretion began to increase within 6 hr of treatment with chlorpromazine. It is concluded that significant riboflavin depletion occurs following treatment with low doses of chlorpromazine, both in animals fed a normal diet and in animals fed a riboflavin-deficient diet, particularly during the early stages of deficiency.