Compilation of herbal plants (description, geographical distribution, taxonomy, line drawings), biodiversity and herbarium.

Read More
Research & Publication

Description of herbal and T&CM research, searchable publication and process from medicinal plant discovery to clinical trial in producing a high-quality registered herbal drug.

Read More
Traditional & Complementary Medicine (T&CM)


Definition and description of therapies, policy, training and education, research in the practise of (T&CM) and integrated medicine system.           

Read More


News Update

Announcement & Advertisement

Forthcoming Events

International Conference on Natural Products (ICNP) 2020

From Mon, 29. June 2020 Until Tue, 30. June 2020

13th National Conference for Clinical Research (NCCR) 2020

From Wed, 8. July 2020 Until Fri, 10. July 2020

The 10th International Congress of Natural Products Research (ICNPR) 2020

From Sat, 25. July 2020 Until Thu, 30. July 2020

Asian Symposium on Medicinal Plants and Spices XVII (2020)

From Tue, 18. August 2020 Until Wed, 19. August 2020

4th Interntaional Conference on Natural Products and Medicinal Plants Research

From Fri, 25. September 2020 Until Sat, 26. September 2020

Bromelain modulates T cell and B cell immune responses in vitro and in vivo


Engwerda CR, Andrew D, Ladhams A, Mynott TL




Cell Immunol


The ability to modulate immune responses is a major aim of many vaccine and immunotherapeutic development programs. Bromelain, a mixture of cysteine proteases, modulates immunological responses and has been proposed to be of clinical use. However, the identity of the immune cells affected by bromelain and the specific cellular functions that are altered remain poorly understood. To address these shortcomings in our knowledge, we have used both in vitro and in vivo immunological assays to study the effects of bromelain. We found that bromelain enhanced T cell receptor (TCR) and anti-CD28-mediated T cell proliferation in splenocyte cultures by increasing the costimulatory activity of accessory cell populations. However, despite increased T cell proliferation, bromelain concomitantly decreased IL-2 production in splenocyte cultures. Additionally, bromelain did not affect TCR and CD28-induced proliferation of highly purified CD4+ T cells, but did inhibit IL-2 production by these cells. In vivo, bromelain enhanced T-cell-dependent, Ag-specific, B cell antibody responses. Again, bromelain induced a concomitant decrease in splenic IL-2 mRNA accumulation in immunized mice. Together, these data show that bromelain can simultaneously enhance and inhibit T cell responses in vitro and in vivo via a stimulatory action on accessory cells and a direct inhibitory action on T cells. This work provides important insights into the immunomodulatory activity of bromelain and has important implications for the use of exogenous cysteine proteases as vaccine adjuvants or immunomodulatory agents.

Explore Further

Consumer Data

Consumer data including medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs and interactions and depletions.                                    

Read More
Professional Data

Professional data organized into medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs, T&CM herbs, formulas, health conditions, interactions and depletions.

Read More
International Data

We offer International linkages to provide extensive content pertaining to many facets of T&CM as well as Integrated Medicine. Please register for access.    

Read More