Compilation of herbal plants (description, geographical distribution, taxonomy, line drawings), biodiversity and herbarium.

Read More
Research & Publication

Description of herbal and T&CM research, searchable publication and process from medicinal plant discovery to clinical trial in producing a high-quality registered herbal drug.

Read More
Traditional & Complementary Medicine (T&CM)


Definition and description of therapies, policy, training and education, research in the practise of (T&CM) and integrated medicine system.           

Read More


News Update

Announcement & Advertisement

Forthcoming Events

International Conference on Malay Medical Manuscript

From Tue, 15. December 2020 Until Wed, 16. December 2020

International Conference on Natural Products and Drug Discovery (ICNPDD) 2021

From Thu, 11. February 2021 Until Fri, 12. February 2021

Modulation of Extracellular Matrix Metabolism in Rabbit Articular Chondrocytes and Human Rheumatoid Synovial Cells by the Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Etodolac. II: Glycosaminoglycan Synthesis


Redini F




Agents Actions


The effect of Etodolac on glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis by human synovial cells and rabbit articular chondrocytes in culture was studied at doses ranging from 0.01 to 10 micrograms/ml. In chondrocyte cultures, short-term exposure to Etodolac decreased the total amount of GAGs (mainly chondroitin sulfate) affecting essentially the cell layer-associated fraction. When cells were incubated with Interleukin-1 (IL-1), Etodolac still exerted its inhibiting effect on GAG synthesis. Long-term exposure of chondrocytes to Etodolac caused a diminution of the total GAG synthesis for the highest concentration studied (1 micrograms/ml). IL-1 alone or in combination with Etodolac decreased the synthesis of GAGs suggesting that pretreatment with Etodolac cannot prevent the action of IL-1. In synoviocyte cultures, the drug caused an inhibition of the GAG biosynthesis (mainly hyaluronic acid). In presence of IL-1, Etodolac at the highest concentration partially diminished the stimulatory effect of IL-1. A 8-day exposure of the cells to Etodolac led to a decrease of GAG synthesis. In the same experiment, IL-1 alone caused a slight increase of GAG production that was not abolished by Etodolac treatment.

Explore Further

Consumer Data

Consumer data including medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs and interactions and depletions.                                    

Read More
Professional Data

Professional data organized into medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs, T&CM herbs, formulas, health conditions, interactions and depletions.

Read More
International Data

We offer International linkages to provide extensive content pertaining to many facets of T&CM as well as Integrated Medicine. Please register for access.    

Read More