Enhanced leg exercise endurance with a high-carbohydrate diet and dihydroxyacetone and pyruvate.


Stanko RT, Robertson RJ, Galbreath RW




J Appl Physiol


The effects of dietary supplementation of dihydroxyacetone and pyruvate (DHAP) on metabolic responses and endurance capacity during leg exercise were determined in eight untrained males (20-30 yr). During the 7 days before exercise, a high-carbohydrate diet was consumed (70% carbohydrate, 18% protein, 12% fat; 35 kcal/kg body weight). One hundred grams of either Polycose (placebo) or dihydroxyacetone and pyruvate (treatment, 3:1) were substituted for a portion of carbohydrate. Dietary conditions were randomized, and subjects consumed each diet separated by 7-14 days. After each diet, cycle ergometer exercise (70% of peak oxygen consumption) was performed to exhaustion. Biopsy of the vastus lateralis muscle was obtained before and after exercise. Blood samples were drawn through radial artery and femoral vein catheters at rest, after 30 min of exercise, and at exercise termination. Leg endurance was 66 +/- 4 and 79 +/- 2 min after placebo and DHAP, respectively (P less than 0.01). Muscle glycogen at rest and exhaustion did not differ between diets. Whole leg arteriovenous glucose difference was greater (P less than 0.05) for DHAP than for placebo at rest (0.36 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.19 +/- 0.07 mM) and after 30 min of exercise (1.06 +/- 0.14 vs. 0.65 +/- 0.10 mM) but did not differ at exhaustion. Plasma free fatty acids, glycerol, and beta-hydroxybutyrate were similar during rest and exercise for both diets. Estimated total glucose oxidation during exercise was 165 +/- 17 and 203 +/- 15 g after placebo and DHAP, respectively (P less than 0.05). It is concluded that feeding of DHAP for 7 days in conjunction with a high carbohydrate diet enhances leg exercise endurance capacity by increasing glucose extraction by muscle.