Compilation of herbal plants (description, geographical distribution, taxonomy, line drawings), biodiversity and herbarium.

Read More
Research & Publication

Description of herbal and T&CM research, searchable publication and process from medicinal plant discovery to clinical trial in producing a high-quality registered herbal drug.

Read More
Traditional & Complementary Medicine (T&CM)


Definition and description of therapies, policy, training and education, research in the practise of (T&CM) and integrated medicine system.           

Read More


News Update

Announcement & Advertisement

Forthcoming Events

International Conference on Biotechnology and Healthcare

From Mon, 7. December 2020 Until Tue, 8. December 2020

International Conference on Malay Medical Manuscript

From Tue, 15. December 2020 Until Wed, 16. December 2020

International Conference on Natural Medicine and Nutrition (ICNMN) 2020

From Thu, 17. December 2020 Until Fri, 18. December 2020

1st Global Summit on Generic Drugs and Quality Control

From Fri, 22. January 2021 Until Sat, 23. January 2021

International Conference on Natural Products and Drug Discovery (ICNPDD) 2021

From Thu, 11. February 2021 Until Fri, 12. February 2021

Glutamine and intestinal immune cells in humans


van der Hulst RR, von Meyenfeldt MF, Tiebosch A




JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr


BACKGROUND: Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is associated with depletion of intestinal immune cells and increased gut permeability (GP). Adding glutamine (GLN) to TPN preserves GP by an unknown mechanism. Intestinal immune cells situated between the enterocytes (intraepithelial lymphocytes, [IEL]) influence GP in vitro. To obtain insight into the underlying mechanism of GLN on GP, we investigated the effects of GLN-supplemented TPN on IEL, immunoglobulin A (IgA) plasma cells and goblet cells, and enterocyte proliferation in intestinal biopsies. METHODS: Twenty patients randomly received GLN-enriched TPN (GT) or isonitrogenous standard TPN (ST). Proliferation and number of immune cells were measured in intestinal biopsies obtained before and after 10 days of TPN. RESULTS: No change in proliferative activity or in number of IgA plasma cells was observed. Goblet cells increased in the ST group, whereas the change seen in the GT group did not reach significance. In the GT group, IEL decreased, whereas in the ST group, no change in the number of IEL was observed. CONCLUSIONS: TPN was not associated with changes in proliferative activity or with depletion of gut immune cells. The data indicate that GLN-supplemented TPN has a different effect on intestinal immune cells compared with standard TPN.

Explore Further

Consumer Data

Consumer data including medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs and interactions and depletions.                                    

Read More
Professional Data

Professional data organized into medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs, T&CM herbs, formulas, health conditions, interactions and depletions.

Read More
International Data

We offer International linkages to provide extensive content pertaining to many facets of T&CM as well as Integrated Medicine. Please register for access.    

Read More