Inhibitory effects of antioxidants on formation of heterocyclic amines.


Oguri A, Suda M, Totsuka Y, Sugimura T




Mutat Res


It is important to search for effective antioxidants to suppress formation of mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs), like 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2- amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), because these HCAs are considered to be probable human carcinogens. The effects of various food-derived antioxidants on MeIQx formation were examined by their addition (0.2 mmol each) to mixtures of creatine (0.4 mmol), glycine (0.4 mmol) and glucose (0.2 mmol), and heating at 128 degreesC for 2 h. Glycine was replaced by l-phenylalanine in the case of PhIP formation. Among the 14 kinds of antioxidants tested, green tea catechins and the major component [(-)-epigallocatechin gallate], two flavonoids (luteolin and quercetin) and caffeic acid were found to clearly suppress the formation of both MeIQx and PhIP, being 3.2- 75% of the level of the controls. These phenolic antioxidants also reduced the total mutagenicity of the heated mixtures. The results suggest that foodstuffs containing catechins, flavonoids and caffeic acid may suppress the formation of HCAs in cooked foods. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.