A novel proanthocyanidin IH636 grape seed extract increases in vivo Bcl-XL expression and prevents acetaminophen-induced programmed and unprogrammed cell death in mouse liver.


Ray SD, Kumar MA, Bagchi D




Arch Biochem Biophys


Several molecular events in the apoptotic or necrotic death of hepatocytes induced by acetaminophen (AAP) now appear to be well defined. Recent studies also indicate that select expression of bcl- Xl is possibly modified during AAP-induced liver injury. The purpose of this study was several-fold: (i) to examine the hepatoprotective ability of short-term (3-day) and long-term (7-day) exposures of a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on AAP-induced liver injury and animal lethality; (ii) to monitor effects of GSPE on one of the prime targets of AAP, i.e., hepatocellular genomic DNA and associated apoptotic and necrotic death; and (iii) to unravel changes in the pattern of expression of an antiapoptotic gene, bcl-Xl in the liver. In order to investigate these events, male ICR mice (30-40 g) were administered nontoxic doses of GSPE (3 or 7 days, 100 mg/kg, po), followed by hepatotoxic doses of AAP (400 and 500 mg/kg, ip), and sacrificed 24 h later. Serum was analyzed for alanine aminotransferase activity (ALT) and the liver for histopathological diagnosis of apoptosis/necrosis. The ability of AAP to promote apoptotic DNA fragmentation and its counteraction by GSPE in the liver was also evaluated quantitatively (by a sedimentation assay) and qualitatively (by agarose gel electrophoresis). Portions of livers were also subjected to Western blot analysis (27,000g fraction of liver homogenates) to examine the pattern of expression of cell death inhibitory gene bcl-Xl. Results indicate that 7-day GSPE preexposure induced dramatic protection and markedly decreased liver injury and animal lethality culminated by AAP, when compared to a short-term 3-day exposure. Abrogation of toxicity was also mirrored in DNA fragmentation. Histopathological evaluation of liver sections showed remarkable counteraction of AAP-toxicity by this novel GSPE and substantial inhibition of both apoptotic and necrotic liver cell death. Agarose gel electrophoresis revealed that 7-day GSPE preexposure prior to AAP administration completely blocked Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-dependent-endonuclease-mediated ladder- like fragmentation of genomic DNA and significantly altered the bcl- Xl expression. The most dramatic changes observed in this study were: (i) substantial increase in the expression of bcl-Xl in the liver by 7-day GSPE exposure alone; (ii) significant modification bcl-Xl expression by AAP alone; and (iii) dramatic inhibition of AAP-induced modification of bcl-Xl (phosphorylation?) expression by GSPE. In summary, these observations demonstrate that GSPE preexposure may significantly attenuate AAP-induced hepatic DNA damage, apoptotic and necrotic cell death of liver cells, and, most remarkably, antagonize the influence of AAP-induced changes in bcl-Xl expression in vivo. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.