Influences of Ginkgo biloba on cyclosporin A induced lipid peroxidation in human liver microsomes in comparison to vitamin E, glutathione and N-acetylcysteine.


Barth SA, Inselmann G, Engemann R, Heidemann HT




Biochem Pharmacol


The in vitro effect of cyclosporin A (CsA) on lipid peroxidation in human liver microsomes was investigated, and efforts were made to prevent the resulting toxic effect of CsA. Microsomes were prepared from human liver resection material and incubated with CsA (0, 10, 30, 100, 300, 1000 micrograms/mL) for one hour (pH 7.4, 37 degrees, 95% O2, 5% CO2). Subsequently the resulting concentrations of malondialdehyde equivalents (MDA) were determined, a breakdown product of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore the duration of incubation was varied (0, 15, 30, 60, 90 min) using a CsA concentration of 300 micrograms/mL. CsA was shown to stimulate MDA-formation to up to 10-fold of the control value in both a time and concentration dependent manner. The dosage dependent experiment stated above was repeated, adding alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E, 1 mM), reduced glutathione (GSH, 1 mM), N-acetylcysteine (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3 mM), and Ginkgo biloba extract (Gbe, 15, 50, 150 micrograms/mL), respectively, to the medium of incubation. Vitamin E, a potent radical scavenger, proved to inhibit lipid peroxidation almost totally. Both GSH and N-acetylcysteine were also able to prevent lipid peroxidation, suggesting that the antioxidant effect of GSH might be caused by its thiol group and does not depend on the integrity of the whole molecule. Gbe inhibited CsA induced lipid peroxidation in a concentration dependent manner. This effect of Gbe was diminished yet not totally abolished when FeCl3 was added to the medium of incubation, whereas N-acetylcysteine even slightly enhanced CsA stimulated lipid peroxidation in the presence of iron. These results suggest that Gbe might be able to prevent radical mediated damage to human membranes caused by CsA.