Treatment of Amanita mushroom poisoning: a review.


Parish RC, Doering PL.




Vet Hum Toxicol


Poisoning with mushrooms of the genus Amanita, members of which occur frequently in both North America and Europe, accounts for a significant number of deaths annually. Liver damage is the main clinical feature and death rates are variously reported to be from 11.3% to 51.3% of patients. The amount of mushroom ingested appears to be the main prognostic indicator and a fatal outcome appears inevitable if a large amount is eaten. In sublethal exposures, supportive therapy seems effective; when definitive treatment is considered, hyperbaric oxygen, penicillin and silymarin are indicated in conjunction with careful management of blood glucose concentration. Charcoal hemoperfusion, forced diuresis, hyperbaric oxygen, and thioctic acid may also be considered, although these treatment modalities are not clearly associated with increased survival.