Endogenous ascorbate regenerates vitamin E in the retina directly and in combination with exogenous dihydrolipoic acid.


Stoyanovsky DA, Goldman R, Darrow RM, Organisciak DT, Kagan VE.




Curr Eye Res


Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) is the major lipid-soluble antioxidant of retinal membranes whose deficiency causes retinal degeneration. Its antioxidant function is realized via scavenging peroxyl radicals as a result of which phenoxyl radicals of alpha-tocopherol are formed. Our hypothesis is that alpha-tocopherol phenoxyl radicals can be reduced by endogenous reductants in the retina, providing for alpha-tocopherol recycling. The results of this study demonstrate for the first time that: (i) endogenous ascorbate (vitamin C) in retinal homogenates and in rod outer segments is able to protect endogenous alpha-tocopherol against oxidation induced by UV-irradiation by reducing the phenoxyl radical of alpha-tocopherol, (ii) in the absence of ascorbate, neither endogenous nor exogenously added glutathione (GSH) is efficient in protecting alpha-tocopherol against oxidation; (iii) GSH does not substantially enhance the protective effect of ascorbate against alpha-tocopherol oxidation; (iv) exogenous dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), although inefficient in direct reduction of the alpha-tocopherol phenoxyl radical, is able to enhance the protective effect of ascorbate by regenerating it from dehydroascorbate. Thus, regeneration of alpha-tocopherol from its phenoxyl radical can enhance its antioxidant effectiveness in the retina. The recycling of alpha-tocopherol opens new avenues for pharmacological approaches to enhance antioxidants of the retina.