A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation for X-linked retinitis pigmentosa.


Hoffman DR, Locke KG, Wheaton DH, Fish GE, Spencer R, Birch DG.




Am J Ophthalmol


PURPOSE: Low docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) may influence retinal function. The goals of this study were to elevate blood DHA levels and determine the effect on the rate of disease progression. DESIGN: In a 4-year prospective randomized clinical trial, male patients with XLRP (mean age = 16 years; range = 4-38 years) received DHA (400 mg/d; n = 23; +DHA group) or placebo (n = 21) capsules. METHODS: Red blood cell (RBC)-DHA concentrations were assessed every 6 months. Full-field cone electroretinograms (ERGs; the primary outcome measure), visual acuity, dark-adaptation, visual fields, rod ERGs, and fundus photos were recorded annually. RESULTS: In the +DHA group, RBC-DHA increased 2.5-fold over placebo levels (70 vs 28 mg DHA/l). Repeated measures analysis of variance for cone ERG showed a significant main effect of year (P <.0001) but not of group (P =.16). Preservation of cone ERG function correlated with RBC-DHA (P =.018), and there was less change in fundus appearance in the +DHA group (P =.04). Neither visual acuity nor visual fields were changed. In subset analysis, DHA supplementation was beneficial in reducing rod ERG functional loss in patients aged <12 years (P =.040) and preserving cone ERG function in patients > or =12 years (P =.038). CONCLUSIONS: Although DHA-supplemented patients had significantly elevated mean RBC-DHA levels, the rate of cone ERG functional loss was not significantly different between groups. Supplemental analyses provided evidence for a DHA benefit and a direction for subsequent investigations.