Articles

Manganese

Introduction

Manganese is involved in the production of a wide variety of enzymes. These enzymes influence such biological processes as the production of collagen and the metabolism of protein and cholesterol. Manganese is also necessary for normal bone growth and the metabolism of amino acids.

The average human body only contains approximately 20mg of manganese, most of which is stored in the bones. The best food sources of manganese include nuts, whole grain breads and cereals, dried beans and peas, vegetables, raisins, pineapple, and nuts.

Dosage Info

Dosage Range

Dosages commonly used in clinical studies range from 250mcg-5mg daily. (1)

Most Common Dosage

2mg daily

Dosage Forms

Tablets, capsules, and powders.

Interactions and Depletions

Interactions

Reported Uses

Manganese is necessary for the growth and maintenance of tissues, cartilage and bones. It also plays a role in the regulation of blood clotting. Manganese makes up part of one of the body’s most important antioxidants. (2) It also supports the production of certain hormones and neurotransmitters while aiding in the metabolism of fats.

Manganese supplementation may support health in diabetics. (3) It may also lower the frequency of seizures in people with epilepsy. (4) , (5) , (6) , (7) Because it is vital for bone health, manganese supplementation may also strengthen bones in patients with osteoporosis. (8) , (9)

Toxicities & Precautions

Introduction

[span class=alert]Be sure to tell your pharmacist, doctor, or other health care providers about any dietary supplements you are taking. There may be a potential for interactions or side effects.[/span]

General

This dietary supplement is considered safe when used in accordance with proper dosing guidelines.

Pregnancy / Breast Feeding

To date, the medical literature has not reported any adverse effects related to fetal development during pregnancy or to infants who are breast-fed. Proper nutrition is essential during pregnancy for the healthy development of the fetus. Numerous vitamins and minerals are a vital part of proper nutrition. If you are pregnant, think you might be pregnant, trying to get pregnant, or breast-feeding an infant, talk to your healthcare professional about supplementing your diet with appropriate vitamins and minerals.

Age Limitations

To date, the medical literature has not reported any adverse effects specifically related to the use of this dietary supplement in children. Vitamins and minerals are an essential part of proper growth and development. Talk to your healthcare professional about the appropriate use of vitamins and minerals in children. Do not use any vitamin or mineral in children under 2 years of age unless first discussed with your healthcare professional.

References

  1. View Abstract: Strause L, Saltman P, Smith KT, Bracker M, Andon MB. Spinal bone loss in postmenopausal women supplemented with calcium and trace minerals. J Nutr. Jul1994;124(7):1060-1064.
  2. View Abstract: Luk E, Carroll M, Baker M, Culotta VC. Manganese activation of superoxide dismutase 2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires MTM1, a member of the mitochondrial carrier family. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Sep2003;100(18):10353-7.
  3. Wimhurst JM, et al. Comparison of Ability of Mg and Mn to Activate the Key Enzymes of Glycolysis. FEBS Lett. Nov1972;27(2):321-26.
  4. View Abstract: Papavasilious PS, et al. Seizure Disorders and Trace Metals: Manganese Tissue Levels in Treated Epileptics. Neurology. Nov1979;29(11):1466-73.
  5. View Abstract: Papavasilious PS, et al. Seizure Disorders and Trace Metals: Manganese Tissue Levels in Treated Epileptics. Neurology. Nov1979;29(11):1466-73.
  6. View Abstract: Dupone CL, et al. Blood Manganese Levels in Children with Convulsive Disorder. Biochem Med. Apr1985;33(2):246-55.
  7. View Abstract: Carl GF, et al. Manganese and epilepsy: brain glutamine synthetase and liver arginase activities in genetically epilepsy prone and chronically seizured rats. Epilepsia. May1993;34(3):441-6.
  8. Freeland-Graves J. Manganese: An Essential Nutrient for Humans. Nutrition Today. Dec1988:13-19.
  9. View Abstract: Keen CL, et al. Nutritional aspects of manganese from experimental studies. Neurotoxicology. Apr1993;20(2-3):213-23.