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International Conference on Traditional Medicine and Phytochemistry 2021

From Mon, 12. July 2021 Until Wed, 14. July 2021

Asian Symposium on Medicinal Plants and Spices XVII (2020)

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Gelengang Besar

Plant Part Used

Leaf and seeds

Active Constituents

Physcione, kaempferol, kaempferol 3-gentiobioside, aloe emodin, chrysophanol, deoxycoelulatin, sennoside A, sennoside B, sennoside C, sennoside D, rhein, rhein methyl ester diacetate, beta-sitosterol, isochrysophanol, 4,5-dihydroxy-2-hydroxyantron, 4,5-dihydroxy-1-hydroxyantron, chrysoeriol-7-O-(2"-O- beta-D-mannopyranosyl)- beta-D-allopyranoside, rhamnetin-3-O-(2"-O- beta-D-mannopyranosyl)- beta-D-allopyranoside, emodin, galactomannan, chrysophanic acid, anthraquinones glycosides. (1) , (2) , (3)

Introduction

Cassia alata L., called as gelenggang or daun kurap by the Malays, is utilized for treating ringworm and other cutaneous disease in Southeast Asia. Cassia alata is also occasionally planted in garden due to its attractive striking yellow flower. The plant is a coarse, slightly woody herb with large leaf of about 2½ feet long and is six feet in height and it belongs to the legume family. The plant is native to tropical America but now is growing freely throughout Malaysia. (4) , (5)

Dosage Info

Dosage Range

Internal Use: Leaf decoction for purgative use and stomach ache (drink and applied on stomach). (6) , (7)
b. External Use
A bark paste is used for soothing inflammation and shingles. (8) When using for ringworm, rub the leaf on the infected area or pound and mix with lime before apply mixture to the infected area. (9) , (10) A strong leaf and flower decoction has beenused as a wash for eczema. (11)

Most Common Dosage

Internal Use: Leaf decoction for purgative use and stomach ache (drink and applied on stomach). (12) , (13)
b. External Use
A bark paste is used for soothing inflammation and shingles. (14) When using for ringworm, rub the leaf on the infected area or pound and mix with lime before apply mixture to the infected area. (15) , (16) A strong leaf and flower decoction has beenused as a wash for eczema. (17)

Standardization

The standardization is documented in the Malaysian Herbal Monograph, Volume I.

Toxicities & Precautions

General

It was claimed that the active substance of chrysophanic acid was a poison to cattle. (18) The saponin content of leaf extract was also reported to be toxic in rat models. (19)

Side Effects

A decoction of the leaves was reported to contract chronic diarrhea when taken excessively. (20) A toxicity study had reported loss of appetite, emaciation, and loss of weight in rats. (21) However, no adverse effects have been observed in clinical studies on the leaf extract against Pityriasis versicolor. (22)

Pharmacology

In-vitro studies reported that the leaf extract of Cassia alata exhibited a high anti-fungal activity on dermatophytic fungi but low activity on non-dermatophytic fungi. (23) The plant water extract was also reported to have anti-fungal activity against Candida albicans and dermatophytes and anti-bacterial activity against E.coli, which then suggested it may be possible to aid in treating infections in AIDS patients. (24)

Animal studies had revealed that different solvent extracts of the plant leaf showed different bioactivities but all did cause an immediate decrease in motor activity, enophthalmus, hyperemia, micturition, and diarrhea. The hexane extract exhibited an analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. Ethyl acetate extract only showed anti-inflammatory activity while the chloroform extract gave anti-mutagenic effects. (25) The methanolic extracts of leaves, flowers, stems, and root barks of Cassia alata were reported to show a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. (26)

A combination of the ethanolic extract of Cassia alata leaf and Ocimum sanctum have shown anti-cryptococcus activity. (27) , (28) The combination of ethanolic extract with salicyclic acid was also reported to have an anti-dandruff effect against Staph. aureus and Staph. epidermidis. (29)

A preliminary finding in animal studies suggested that Cassia alata had a positive fertility effect on the reproductive functions of female mice. (30) , (31)

Reported Uses

It has been used for pityriasis versicolor infections, chronic constipation, anti-fungal infections, and ringworm. (32) , (33) , (34) , (35)

In addition, cassia alata has been used for soothing inflammation and shingles, as a skin disinfectant, for constipation, oedema, herpes infections, hepatitis, liver discomfort, impetigo, worm infestation, as a laxative and an analgesic. Also it has been used for leprosy, wound healing, as an anti-helminthic, anti-bacterial, diuretic, for snakebites, bronchitis, asthma, hasten child birth, eczema, stomachaches and uterine disorders. (36) , (37) , (38) , (39) , (40) , (41) , (42) , (43)

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  1) Safety

References

  1. Moriyama H, Iizuka T, Nagai M. A stabilized flavonoid glycoside in heat-treated Cassia alata leaves and its elucidation. Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan. 2001;121(11):817-20.
  2. Wiart C. Medicinal Plants of Southeast Asia. Prentice Hall. 139.
  3. Zhari I, Norhayati I, Jaafar L. Malaysian Herbal Monograph Vol I. Malaysian Monograph Committee. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 1999.
  4. Wiart C. Medicinal Plants of Southeast Asia. Prentice Hall. 139.
  5. Smith J. Wild Flowers of Sabah and Sarawak. Borneo Literature Bureau. 16-18.
  6. Wiart C. Medicinal Plants of Southeast Asia. Prentice Hall. 139.
  7. Kamarudin MS, Latiff A. Tumbuhan Ubatan Malaysia. 390-3.
  8. Wiart C. Medicinal Plants of Southeast Asia. Prentice Hall. 139.
  9. Smith J. Wild Flowers of Sabah and Sarawak. Borneo Literature Bureau. 16-18.
  10. Burkill IH. (1966). A Dictionary of The Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula Vol II. Government of Malaysia and Singapore by the Ministry of Agriculture and coorperatives. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 1966.
  11. Jayaweera DMA. Part III – Flacourtiaceae – Lythraceae. Medicinal Plants (Indigenous and Exotic) Used in Ceylon. The National Science Council of Sri Lanka. 1981.
  12. Wiart C. Medicinal Plants of Southeast Asia. Prentice Hall. 139.
  13. Kamarudin MS, Latiff A. Tumbuhan Ubatan Malaysia. 390-3.
  14. Wiart C. Medicinal Plants of Southeast Asia. Prentice Hall. 139.
  15. Smith J. Wild Flowers of Sabah and Sarawak. Borneo Literature Bureau. 16-18.
  16. Burkill IH. (1966). A Dictionary of The Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula Vol II. Government of Malaysia and Singapore by the Ministry of Agriculture and coorperatives. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 1966.
  17. Jayaweera DMA. Part III – Flacourtiaceae – Lythraceae. Medicinal Plants (Indigenous and Exotic) Used in Ceylon. The National Science Council of Sri Lanka. 1981.
  18. Burkill IH. (1966). A Dictionary of The Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula Vol II. Government of Malaysia and Singapore by the Ministry of Agriculture and coorperatives. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 1966.
  19. Sodipo OA, Effraim KD, Emmagun E. Effect of aqueous leaf extract of Cassia alata(Linn.) on some haematological indices in albino rats. Phytotheraphy research. 1998;12(6):431-33.
  20. Burkill IH. (1966). A Dictionary of The Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula Vol II. Government of Malaysia and Singapore by the Ministry of Agriculture and coorperatives. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 1966.
  21. Sodipo OA, Effraim KD, Emmagun E. Effect of aqueous leaf extract of Cassia alata(Linn.) on some haematological indices in albino rats. Phytotheraphy research. 1998;12(6):431-33.
  22. Damodaran S, Venkataraman S. A study on the therapeutic efficacy of Cassia alata, S. Linn. Leaf extract against Pityriasis versicolor. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1994;42(1):19-23.
  23. Ibrahim D, Osman H. Antimicrobial activity of Cassia alata from Malaysia. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1995;45(3):151-6.
  24. Somchit MN, Reezal I, Elysha Nur I, Mutalib AR. In vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanol and water extracts of Cassia alata. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2003;84(1):1-4.
  25. Villasenor IM, Canlas AP, Pascua MP, Sabando MN, Soliven LA. Bioactivity studies on Cassia alata Linn. leaf extracts. Phytotheraphy research. 2002.
  26. Khan MR, Kihara M, Omoloso AD. Antimicrobial activity of Cassia alata. Fitoterapia. 2001;72(5):561-64.
  27. Somchit MN, Reezal I, Elysha Nur I, Mutalib AR. In vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanol and water extracts of Cassia alata. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2003;84(1):1-4.
  28. Ranganathan S, Balajee SA. Anti-Cryptococcus activity of combination of extracts of Cassia alata and Ocimum sanctum. Mycoses. 2000;43(7):299-301.
  29. Logawa B, Atmawidjaja S, Badruzzaman, Mukman EY. Potentiation of The Anti-dandruff effect of an ethanolic extract of Ketepeng (Cassia alata L.) leaves by salicyclic acid. The International Conference on the Use of Traditional Medicine & Other Natural Products in Health-Care. 1993.
  30. Azmahani A, Somchit MN, Sukardi S, Abdullah AS, Wan Nordin WM. The effects of Andrographis paniculata, Carica papaya and Cassia alata extracts on the reproductive systems of male mice. 18th Malaysian Society of Pharmacology and Physiology (MSSP) Scientific Meeting. Hospital UKM, Kuala Lumpur. 2003;31.
  31. Azmahani A, Somchit MN, Elysha Nur I,Zarani MT. Preliminary Study on The Fertility Effect of Euphorbia hirta, Cassia alata, and Cassia tora extracts in female mice. 16th Scientific Meeting of the Malaysian Society of Pharmacology and Physiology. International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur. 2001;3.
  32. Wiart C. Medicinal Plants of Southeast Asia. Prentice Hall. 139.
  33. Zhari I, Norhayati I, Jaafar L. Malaysian Herbal Monograph Vol I. Malaysian Monograph Committee. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 1999.
  34. Damodaran S, Venkataraman S. A study on the therapeutic efficacy of Cassia alata, S. Linn. Leaf extract against Pityriasis versicolor. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1994;42(1):19-23.
  35. Burkill IH. (1966). A Dictionary of The Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula Vol II. Government of Malaysia and Singapore by the Ministry of Agriculture and coorperatives. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 1966.
  36. Wiart C. Medicinal Plants of Southeast Asia. Prentice Hall. 139.
  37. Zhari I, Norhayati I, Jaafar L. Malaysian Herbal Monograph Vol I. Malaysian Monograph Committee. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 1999.
  38. Kamarudin MS, Latiff A. Tumbuhan Ubatan Malaysia. 390-3.
  39. Jayaweera DMA. Part III – Flacourtiaceae – Lythraceae. Medicinal Plants (Indigenous and Exotic) Used in Ceylon. The National Science Council of Sri Lanka. 1981.
  40. Kulip J. A Preliminary Survey of Traditional Medicinal Plants in the West Coast and Interior of Sabah. Journal of Tropical Forest Science. 1997;10(2):271-74.
  41. Fasihuddin A. Medicinal Plants used by various Ethnic Groups in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Trends in Traditional Medicine Research.
  42. Somchit MN, Reezal I, Elysha Nur I, Mutalib AR. In vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanol and water extracts of Cassia alata. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2003;84(1):1-4.
  43. Khan MR, Kihara M, Omoloso AD. Antimicrobial activity of Cassia alata. Fitoterapia. 2001;72(5):561-64.

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